Assignment: classifying nonexperimental research

Want create site? With you can do it easy.

Assignment: classifying nonexperimental research

Assignment: classifying nonexperimental research


Struggling to find relevant content or pressed for time? – Don’t worry, we have a team of professionals to help you on
Assignment: classifying nonexperimental research
Get a 15% Discount on this Paper
Order Now


Phrasing Questions

In the first case demonstrated in Figure 4.1, you would be comparing groups with different levels of education on some measure (salary), and in the second case, you would be relating two sets of numeric scores (years and salary). The research questions of interest in the two cases would be: (1) how do groups, based on highest degree earned, differ from each other with respect to salary? and (2) how does number of years of schooling relate to salary? Phrased generically, the key questions in the two situations are: How do groups differ from each other on some measure? How are the variables related to each other? The distinction between these two cases depends only on the fact that education was conceptualized as either categorical or quantitative and not on the nature of the relationship involved.


By now, you should be able to:

1. Describe the difference between experimental and nonexperimental studies

2. Give an example of an independent and a dependent variable within the context of a research question

3. Give an example of a categorical and a measured, quantitative variable


In the literature on experimental studies, there is agreement on the distinction between true- and quasi-experiments. Although both involve treatment manipulation, trueexperiments use random assignment of subjects to groups and random assignment of groups to treatments. Quasi-experiments use preexisting intact groups, which are randomly assigned to treatment conditions.

For nonexperimental designs, there appears to be no consistent agreement on typology. In 1991, Elazar Pedhazur and Liora Schmelkin stated that “there is no consensus regarding the term used to refer to designs” which were presented in their chapter on nonexperimental designs (p. 305). Two commonly used terms for nonexperimental studies are “correlational research” and “survey research.” However, the term correlation relates more to an analysis strategy than to a research design and the term survey describes a method of gathering data that can be used in different types of research.

Ten years later, Burke Johnson (2001) came to the same conclusion. Based on a review of twenty-three leading methods textbooks in education and related fields (thirteen explicitly from education and the rest from anthropology, psychology, political science, and sociology), he found little consistency in how nonexperimental studies were classified. He discovered over two dozen different labels being used, sometimes

Lapan c04.tex V1 – 09/02/2008 2:46pm Page 59

Lapan c04.tex V1 – 09/02/2008 2:46pm Page 60

Nonexperimental Quantitative Research

Lapan c04.tex V1 – 09/02/2008 2:46pm Page 59


with slight variations in the wording. The most frequently used labels in these texts were survey (twelve times), correlational (ten times), descriptive (eight times), and causal-comparative (five times). The result of my informal review of six additional research methods texts was consistent with Johnson’s findings.

In an attempt to remedy this confusion, Johnson (2001) proposed a categorization scheme consisting of two basic dimensions, each with three categories. The first dimension represents a characterization of the basic goal or main purpose for conducting the nonexperimental quantitative study. The second dimension allows the research to be classified according to the time frame in which data were collected. These two dimensions will be presented here and discussed separately in the next two sections. In your reading of published articles or research methods textbooks, you will probably encounter other terms for nonexperimental research. You may want to read Johnson (2001) to familiarize yourself with these terms and with the problems that arise because of their use.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new and apps.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyCoursebay
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
As usual, the writers do amazing work.
Customer 452707, October 1st, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Thank you very much for your help.
Customer 452861, September 16th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Thank you
Customer 452559, July 2nd, 2021
Exploring Gender in Science, Technology, and Mathematics
Very good work
Customer 452769, July 2nd, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Excellent Work
Customer 452587, November 22nd, 2021
Criminal Justice
Impressive! Will be using the service again.
Customer 452485, December 5th, 2021
Customer 452813, July 5th, 2022
Always on time and a life saver for sure!!!!!!!!!!!!
Customer 452453, October 22nd, 2021
Business and administrative studies
Customer 452813, June 30th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Great Work!
Customer 452587, March 16th, 2022
Thank you!
Customer 452707, June 29th, 2022
Customer 452653, October 31st, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Get your perfect essay with a 15% discount. Use DC15


Thank you for choosing MyCoursebay. Your presence is a motivation to us. All papers are written from scratch. Plagiarism is not tolerated. Order now for a 15% discount

Order Now