Assignment: Constructivist View

Want create site? With you can do it easy.

Assignment: Constructivist View

Assignment: Constructivist View

Permalink: 

Struggling to find relevant content or pressed for time? – Don’t worry, we have a team of professionals to help you on
Assignment: Constructivist View
Get a 15% Discount on this Paper
Order Now

Assignment: Piaget’s Constructivist View of Knowledge and Development

Theories of development are based on views of the nature of knowledge, and therefore, Piaget argued that it is essential to examine foundational assumptions about the nature of knowledge. He argued against “copy theories” of knowledge, according to which knowledge consists of acquiring images, pictures, or representations that match reality. A flaw in these theories is that it is not possible to check the accuracy of such copies except by comparing them to reality itself. But such comparisons are not possible according to copy theories, because the point of the copy was to provide knowledge of reality; if we could directly access reality in order to compare our representations against it, we would not need such representations in the first place. Therefore, this view does not explain the development of knowledge about the world; instead, it already presupposes its existence.

For Piaget, knowledge, rather than consisting of images or representations, is built up through action on the world, through coming to know what can be done to aspects of the world. Acquiring knowledge through action begins in infancy with simple acts such as pushing and pulling, and continues throughout development, because, according to Piaget, even the most sophisticated forms of thought are interiorized actions, now carried out mentally. Knowledge is not innately preexisting within the child, nor does it arise solely from empirical experience with objects, such that this experience produces a simple copy of the object. Rather, the essential characteristic of Piaget’s constructivism is that intelligence is constructed through the child’s continuous interaction with the world. In this sense, Piaget considered his constructivism a third way that avoids the problems with both nativism and empiricism.

Central in describing the process of development are Piaget’s concepts of scheme, assimilation, and accommodation. These concepts describe the functional relation between the individual and the world at any point in development. A scheme is a general structure that is applied in a particular situation and it is that aspect of any activity that can be generalized. For example, at the sensorimotor level, schemes are general patterns of activity that can be repeated, such as the sucking scheme, which can be applied to different objects. Assimilation is the incorporation of objects or events into an already acquired pattern of activity, or scheme. By integrating objects and events into preexisting knowledge structures or schemes, assimilation gives them meaning (e.g., “suckable”). Infants not only suck on nipples, but also on fingers; that is, a finger may be assimilated to the sucking scheme. But because of differences in the experience of sucking a finger (e.g., it provides no nourishment), the infant differentiates this experience and accommodation is said to have occurred: patterns of activity differentiate to allow for the assimilation of novelty. Assimilation and accommodation are inseparable and describe two fundamental aspects of any activity in the process of adapting to the world, i.e., acquiring knowledge.

The concepts of assimilation and accommodation have several implications. First, they express the idea that development is a continuous process that, at the same time, leads to structural change (differentiation and integration of knowledge structures). Second, activity is always organized in the sense that it is based on a structure (otherwise objects interacted with would be devoid of meaning). Structures, however, do not exist as an entity in the mind that results in reasoning; rather, they exist as potential coordinations of operations. Third, assimilation and accommodation continue, on a functional plane, the material process of self-organization (metabolism), thereby securing the continuity between biological and psychological functioning.

Based on this constructivist view of knowledge, Piaget described a series of stages, or forms of thought, in the development of intelligence. These stages build on each other and, therefore, necessarily develop in the following sequence.

Sensorimotor Intelligence

During the first stage of cognitive development, infants interact with the world through sensorimotor patterns of activity that gradually come to be differentiated and coordinated, as a result of interaction with the world. Because of the relative lack of differentiation and integration of action patterns, infants’ experience of the world is undifferentiated from and fused with their own activity on the world. Piaget argued that the infant’s initial experience of the world is centered upon her own body, which he referred to as egocentrism. This does not mean that the child is focused on herself (self-centered), but rather that she has not yet constructed an understanding of herself as an object existing among other independent objects.

Over the first one and half to two years of life, this initial egocentrism, or centration on the self as the reference point of epistemic experience, is gradually overcome, thanks to the functional interplay of assimilation and accommodation. Piaget described this process as occurring over a series of 6 substages. To get a sense of how radical Piaget’s theory is consider that it is during this period that, according to Piaget, the infant gradually constructs a sensorimotor, practical understanding of what will only later be reflectively understood as space, time, causality and objects. For adults, such a conception of the external world is simply taken for granted, and assumed to be given by perception. Yet, according to Piaget, infants must gradually construct such an understanding of the external world.

Particular interest was generated by Piaget’s description of infants’ development of object permanence; that is, infants’ growing understanding that objects exist as “things out there,” independent of their own activity. During the sensorimotor period, object permanence undergoes a systematic, stagewise development. For example, at substage 3 in the development of object permanence infants will not search for an object if it is completely covered, but they can retrieve an object if part of it is still visible. At substage 4, infants can successfully search for an object even it is completely covered. However, if they have found it under cover A, and then they see it placed under cover B, they will still continue to search for it under A. This curious phenomenon, referred to as the A not B error, has generated a great deal of research. Piaget’s explanation for this characteristic error is that the object is not yet sufficiently separated from the infant’s own action of finding it in the first location. With increasing integration and combinations of schemes, the object will eventually be conceived of as external to and separate from the infant’s own activity: The more an infant can do with an object (e.g., grasp, suck, look, drop), and the better they can coordinate these action schemes, the more the object takes on an existence independent of the infant’s activity.

Sensorimotor intelligence is practical or lived knowledge, which means that such knowledge is dependent on interaction with objects and is not yet reflective in nature. Further development requires a gradual process in which this knowledge is conceptualized and reconstructed at a higher level, within the organization of the succeeding stage. The sensorimotor stage ends with the emergence of the symbolic or semiotic function, the ability to use symbols or signs to represent object or events that are not present. The semiotic function is made possible by the interiorization of imitative actions such that these actions are performed internally and serve as images for the signification of schemes.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new and apps.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyCoursebay
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Nursing
Thank you for the great job and timely delivery.
Customer 452457, December 18th, 2020
Other
GREAT JOB THANK YOU.
Customer 452813, July 18th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Thanks
Customer 452701, August 16th, 2022
Nursing
Perfectly done! Thanks again.
Customer 452707, July 18th, 2022
public speaking
The work was excelent and very professional.
Customer 452653, November 1st, 2021
Business and administrative studies
GREAT
Customer 452813, June 20th, 2022
Nursing
Writer did an excellent job! Thank you.
Customer 452693, January 14th, 2022
Other
Thank you for a well written paper!!!
Customer 452557, January 19th, 2022
Technology
The paper is everything I needed and more. I will add a title and a cover page to it. Other than that the paper turned out excellent.
Customer 452885, October 17th, 2022
IT, Web
Paper was great and accomplished everything I needed.
Customer 452885, October 27th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Excellent
Customer 452587, July 28th, 2021
Social Work and Human Services
Excellent! Done earlier than needed and with more sources than needed! Great work!
Customer 452485, August 22nd, 2021
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Get your perfect essay with a 15% discount. Use DC15

NEW

Thank you for choosing MyCoursebay. Your presence is a motivation to us. All papers are written from scratch. Plagiarism is not tolerated. Order now for a 15% discount

Order Now