Assignment: Counseling Art And Science

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Assignment: Counseling Art And Science

Assignment: Counseling Art And Science

Assignment: Counseling Art And Science

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Assignment: Counseling Art And Science
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Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

Chapter 3:

The Counseling Process

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

1

The Art and Science of Counseling

Art

Involves listening and communicating with the client

Entails tuning into the client’s world with sensitivity

Science

Includes the use of theory and research

Use of standardized tests

Counseling is a fluid process shaped by clients’ individual needs

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

The Six Stages of the Counseling Process

Stage 1: Relationship building

Stage 2: Assessment and diagnosis

Stage 3: Formulation of counseling goals

Stage 4: Intervention and problem solving

Stage 5: Termination and follow-up

Stage 6: Research and evaluation

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 1: Relationship Building

Rogers’ (1957) core conditions include empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence

(continued…)

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 1: Relationship Building

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 1: Relationship Building—Empathy

Considered the most important core condition

Process that involves listening, understanding, and communicating that understanding to the client

Rogers emphasized empathy to include entering into client’s phenomenological world

Gladstein’s (1983) stages of empathy

Counselor has an emotional reaction to client

Counselor attempts to understand the client’s situation from client’s perspective

Counselor communicates empathy to the client

Client feels a sense of caring and understanding from the counselor

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 1: Relationship Building—Unconditional Positive Regard

Also known as nonpossessive warmth, acceptance, prizing, respect, and regard

Believed by some to be unattainable

Concept that is deemed to be misunderstood

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 1: Relationship Building—Congruence, Respect, and Immediacy

Congruence

Counselor behaving consistent with thinking and feelings

Genuineness

Respect

Focuses on positive aspects of the client

Expressed by making positive statements to client

Immediacy

Here-and-now communication

May include expression of counselor’s thinking or feelings at the time

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 1: Relationship Building—Confrontation, Concreteness, and Self-Disclosure

Confrontation

Counselor points out discrepancies in client’s actions and thoughts

Concreteness

Counselor helps client hone in on specific concerns

Self-disclosure

Self-disclosing statements: counselor shares factual information about themselves

Self-involving statements: counselor describes what they are experiencing in counseling process

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 2: Assessment and Diagnosis

Standardized and non-standardized

Facilitates diagnosis and prognosis

Provides an in-depth understanding of client

Enables goal setting

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 3: Formulation of Counseling Goals

Serves function to motivate

Clients work hard on goals they create

Specific goals help clients focus

Function to educate

Client can learn new skills and behaviors

Function to evaluate

Determines progress

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 3: Formulation of Counseling Goals

Goals can be either process or outcome goals

Process: steps that need to occur to make counseling work—counselor’s responsibility

Outcome: specifies what the client hopes to accomplish

Five outcome goals

Facilitating behavioral change

Enhancing coping skills

Prompting decision making

Improving relationships

Facilitating client potential

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 4: Intervention and Problem Solving

Interventions

After goals are set interventions can be determined

May include various modalities such as individual, group family counseling

Considers client’s strengths and weakness when selecting interventions

Enhances strengths

Problem Solving

Teaches how to use problem solving

Kanfer and Busemeyer’s (1982) six-stage model: problem detection, problem definition, identification of alternative solutions, decision making, execution, and verification

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Assignment: Counseling Art And Science

Stage 5: Termination and Follow-Up

Once goals are met, termination can be planned

Best to work collaboratively with counselor and client

Discuss ending counseling, overview of counseling, counselor-client relationship, and post-counseling plans

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 6: Research and Evaluation

Can occur at anytime in counseling

Some research utilizes single case designs or case reviews

Helps add to the field of science

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Listening Skills: Primary Skills

Open-ended questions

Cannot be answered with a simple “yes” or “no”

Encourages elaboration of responses

Paraphrasing

Taking points made by the client and rewording it

Communicates to client understanding

Allowing for client to make correction

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Listening Skills: Primary Skills

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Reflection of feeling

Counselor reflects client feeling

Communicates empathy and understanding

Minimal encouragers

Gestures to facilitate client expression, e.g. “ah-ha”, “go on”

Listening Skills: Primary Skills

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Clarifying remarks

Used when counselor did not hear or does not understand

Expresses interest in wanting to understand

Summarizing

Restating main points

Perception check

Following a summary statement

Counselor asks if this is a focus point for the client

Listening “Don’ts”

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Avoid moralizing or being judgmental

Avoid premature analysis

Avoid “parroting”

Avoid “gimmicky” phrases

Listening Skills: Secondary Skills

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Normalizing

Helping clients understand that their reactions are normal

Diffuses stress and pressure

Structuring

Counselor defines role and counseling process

Probing

Counselor asks for specific information

Minimize its usage

Listening “Dos”

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Decide to be in the role of the listener

Try to sense the client’s inner message

Be aware of nonverbal communication

Allow yourself to correct impressions

Emotions in Counseling

Nystul’s emotional balancing

Emotions are on a continuum from disengaged to enmeshment

Emotion balance has

Clear boundaries

Autonomy

Intimacy

Connection among people

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Strategies for Helping Clients Express

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Develop a meaningful life through stories

Alternative stories

Reauthoring

Narrative repair

Metaphors

Suggests that one idea is similar to another

Used in counseling to gain insight

Helps clients look at their problems from a different perspective

Brief Counseling

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Clients seek help with specific problems

Research demonstrates efficiency

Time limited—problem solution-focused

Manage care

Brief Solution-Focused Counseling

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Stage 1

Establishing the relationship and defining the problem

Stage 2

Assessment and establishing treatment goals

Stage 3

Designing and implementing interventions

Stage 4

Termination, follow-up, and evaluation

Common Problems for Beginning Counselors

Focusing on the first issue in a session

Overlooking physical or medical issues

Wanting to rescue client

Having perfectionist tendencies

Having unrealistic expectations

Getting carried away with latest technique

Getting lost in the counseling process

Using inappropriate phrases

Having excessive desire to help

Having excessive need to be liked

Getting too emotionally involved

Taking things too personally

Difficulty differentiating normal from abnormal

Uncertain about self-disclosure

Uncertain about confidentiality

Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective

© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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