Assignment: Developing an Action Plan

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Assignment: Developing an Action Plan

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Assignment: Developing and Implementing An Action Plan

Chapter 13

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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What is An Action (Tactical) Plan?

“A detailed, actionable, and strategic description of all communication messages, materials, activities, media, and channels, as well as the methods that will be used to pre-test them with key audiences.”

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Key Elements of An Action Plan

  • Integrated approach
  • Creativity in support of strategy
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Imagination
  • Culturally competent and issue-driven messages, channels, and activities
  • Concept development
  • Message development and health literacy assessment
  • Channel selection and prioritization
  • Pre-testing
  • Planning for program launch activities, media, and materials
  • Partnership plan
  • Program time line and budget estimate

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Where Do You Start?

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Looking at Message Development

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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Message Development Starts with Culturally-Competent and Group-Specific Communication Concepts

  • Go back to your research
  • Identify key issues/informational needs to be addressed by your messages
  • Consider and pre-test 2 or 3 different communication concepts/ approaches. For example:
  • Consequences
  • Fear appeal
  • Action step
  • Perceived threat
  • Hope
  • Benefits
  • Etc.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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Example of Different Message Concepts/Approaches

  • Benefits: Immunization protects your child from severe childhood diseases. Vaccines save lives, and keeps children healthy.
  • Benefits: Vaccines have a long-lasting protective effect on children and the communities in which they live and play
  • Barriers: Childhood vaccines are safe and effective. The benefit of immunization are by far larger than the risk for side effects
  • Consequences: Vaccine-preventable childhood diseases can have long-term effects on a child’s physical and mental development.
  • Action steps: Immunize your child. Talk to your healthcare provider about vaccines.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Links to Examples of Communication Programs Based on Fear Appeal

  • Brain on Drugs (1990s) – Fear appeal – Partnership for a Drug-Free America –
  • Real Bears – Fear Appeal – Centers for the Science in the Public Interest
  • Suffering Every Minute –Fear Appeal – NYC Department of Health

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Examples of Programs Using Positive Communication Concepts/ Appeals

  • Healthy Habits – Self-Efficacy, Benefits, Identification- Sesame Workshop
  • It’s about Ability – Self-efficacy – Integration – Benefits – UNICEF

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

Message Characteristics

  • Concise and to the point
  • Credible
  • Relevant to key groups and stakeholders as assessed by them.
  • Consistent
  • Simple/easy to remember/reflecting health literacy levels of intended audiences
  • Descriptive
  • Reflective of the health literacy levels of specific groups
  • Inclusive of social determinants of health
  • Not more than 1-3 per audience

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Messenger, Champion, or

Spokesperson

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

In-Class Practice

Using the fictional example of Luciana and her peers in chapter 2 develop program goal, outcome objectives, communication objectives and strategies, and sample communication concepts and messages to engage Luciana and her peers in adopting new health and social behaviors as they relate to skin cancer prevention.

Message Examples
Skin Cancer Program Intended
to Engage Young Women

  • Skin cancer is on the rise
  • It can affect people of all ages, including young women under 30 who represent XX percent of cancer patients
  • To protect yourself against skin cancer limit sun exposure and always use sunscreen
  • Talk to your pharmacist about the right sunscreen for your skin type
  • Talk to your peers, family, or mentors about being supported in your decision to use sunscreen or to ask for help in removing any barriers to its use. You are not alone!

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Pre-Testing

“Pre-testing answers questions about

whether your materials (and messages) are

understandable, relevant, attention getting,

attractive, credible and acceptable to the

intended audience.”

Source: Doaks, 1995

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Pre-Testing

Pre-testing is also used to assess whether

your program’s concepts and format are

appropriate, culturally relevant, and adequate to engage different groups and

stakeholders.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Pre-Testing

Ask colleagues and professional acquaintances to provide feedback on concepts, messages and materials

  • Relies on traditional and participatory research methods

Focus groups, one-on-one interviews, expert/gatekeeper interviews, questionnaires, surveys, community dialogue, etc..

  • Needs to be cost-effective
  • A participatory process

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials

  • Keep an open mind about the format of your materials/activities
  • Develop a concept paper

Clearly identify goals, intended audiences, main message points, format/medium

Include call to action as part of core messages

Ask community members, key groups, and stakeholders to talk about the issue in their own words

References: Health Education Resource Exchange, DOH, Washington, 2000

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Pre-Testing

“One of the most significant questions is ‘What

can the readers [or participants] do after reading

this [or participating in this activity or effort] that

they could not do before?’ One of the most

common pitfalls of developing materials is

expecting to meet too many objectives in one

piece.”

Source: Matiella, 1991

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials

  • Involve professional designer, creative agency, graphic designer early in development process
  • Pre-test messages with intended audience, community members, others

Select pre-testing methods according to materials format, size of intended audience, cost-effectiveness, cultural preferences, health literacy levels, etc..

Health Education Resource Exchange, DOH, Washington, 2000

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Pre-Testing Messages,
Materials and Activities

Sample Questions

  • What is the key point or message of these materials?
  • What do you think people should do after reading them?
  • Is any relevant information missing from them?
  • What are the elements that you most dislike about this message or these materials, and why?
  • What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of the illustrations and images in the materials?
  • Will you use or distribute these materials? If yes, why, and in which kinds of situations or venues?
  • What do you think of the role models that have been used in this public service announcement? What do you like or dislike about them?
  • What do you think of the idea of appealing to people’s hope for a cure? Will that work for you? If yes, why?
  • Is there any social or political factor (for example, access to transportation, nutritious food, social norms, socioeconomic conditions, and many others) that contributes to this health issue, and the information and materials you reviewed have not addressed and should instead include?
  • Is there anything you suggest to improve these materials or activities?

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013, Appendix A4 © Copyrights,, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials

  • Write simply and clearly for low literacy audiences

Most consumer materials should be written for no higher than 6th to 8th grade level

Take into account cultural and language differences

If your audience is multicultural, make sure that all are represented during pre-testing phase

Ref: Health Education Resource Exchange, DOH, Washington, 2000

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials

  • Pre-testing never ends

Always re-assess materials before re-printing

Consider adapting existing materials/ programs

Ask if they are still appropriate for the groups you seek to engage, if they can be revised/distributed as part of current activities, what you have learned from prior outreach/distribution, etc.

Make sure you build on available resources/ materials/ programs when appropriate

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials

  • Pre-testing is necessary but should not cost more than your program/materials
  • Pre-testing methods needs to reflect/address:
  • Audience size
  • Cultural preferences
  • Health literacy levels
  • Time and cost effectiveness parameters
  • Others

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials

  • Partnering with organizations and community leaders who have experience with reaching out to and engaging the intended community or group increases the likelihood you will develop tailored messages, media and activities
  • Involve them early and in all phases of program development!

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Integrating Partnerships and Action Plans

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

We Live in a Complex World Where Health Issues are Equally Complex and Require Multisectoral Solutions

  • Even if you have sufficient funds, consider inviting others to expand your program’s reach, credibility, resources, etc..
  • Select partners that have objectives that all support your program’s goal!
  • Engage partners in all phases of program design, implementation, and evaluation
  • Effectively integrate the partnership and action plan

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

Key Elements of a Partnership Plan
Effectively Integrating the Partnership and Action Plans by Engaging Partners as Early as Possible

Phase one

  • Project title
  • Overall program goal and outcome objectives
  • Key groups and stakeholders
  • Benefits of potential partnership
  • List of potential partners
  • Organizational constraints and policies
  • Administrative issues
  • Potential drawbacks of partnerships

Phase two

  • Action plan (key activities, events, materials, and media) to be implemented by/with the partners
  • Steps to secure additional partners (if or when needed)
  • Names of partners’ representatives
  • Assigned roles and responsibilities (for each partner)
  • Frequency of and methods (for example, partnership meetings, calls) for progress update and other routine communications among partners
  • Standard protocol for decision making and issue management
  • Expected program outcomes and intermediate milestones
  • Measures for program success as well as partnership viability and long-term sustainability

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright, 2013, table 13.2. All rights reserved.

Working with Partners

Examples of Partners’ Role

  • Endorsing policy/health practice change
  • Distributing your program materials to their membership/ intended audiences
  • Providing a well-know spokesperson to your program
  • Assisting in research and evaluation activities
  • Providing financial support/ “in-kind” contributions
  • Including your messages in their own materials
  • Being involved in media interviews, press conferences, seminars, workshops, etc..
  • Expanding pool of “health ambassadors” on behalf on your program

Overall, partners should be involved in all phases and actively participate in program design, implementation and evaluation. Make sure everyone is clear about their roles and contributions!

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Working with Partners

Identifying and Selecting Partners:

  • Access to members of the groups and stakeholders you seek to engage
  • Credibility with key groups and stakeholders
  • Access to additional resources/skills
  • Qualifications appropriate to program’s topic
  • Preexisting relationship with your organization
  • Impact on key social determinants of health
  • Enthusiasm about program’s content/goal
  • Other factors that may be situation or issue-specific

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Working with Partners
Many Organizations to Be Considered

  • Health departments
  • Social services agencies
  • Voluntary organizations
  • State or national organizations
  • Hospitals, universities
  • Corporations or local businesses
  • Media outlets
  • Educational institutions
  • Service organizations
  • Youth organizations
  • Policymakers
  • Professional associations
  • Patient advocacy groups
  • Health insurances
  • Universities, academic programs
  • Others

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Planning for a Successful
Program Implementation

  • Human resources allocation and budget monitoring
  • Establishing monitoring teams
  • Technical support and advisory groups
  • Process definition
  • Issue management

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. All rights reserved.

Developing an Action Plan

This presentation is part of the instructor’s supplement for Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice. Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, an imprint of Wiley. The instructor’s supplement is stored within a password-protected webpage for instructors. Copyrights @2013 by Renata Schiavo. All rights reserved

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. All rights reserved.

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