Assignment: Interpersonal Judgment

Assignment: Interpersonal Judgment
Assignment: Interpersonal Judgment
Assignment: Interpersonal Judgment
Barry R. Schlenker,1 Michael F. Weigold,1 and
Kristine A. Schlenker2
1University of Florida 2Penn State University
ABSTRACT Principled and expedient ideologies affect self-regulation and guide people along divergent ethical paths. A more principled ide- ology, indicative of higher claimed integrity, involves a greater personal commitment to ethical beliefs, standards, and self-schemas that facilitate positive social activities and help resist the temptation of illicit activities. Two studies showed that differences in reported integrity are related to people’s preferences for and judgments of others. Those higher in integ- rity spontaneously described their heroes as more principled, honest, spiritual, and benevolently oriented toward others (Study 1). In addition, integrity was related to people’s evaluations of characters who made ethical or unethical career decisions (Study 2). The judgments of those higher in integrity were greatly influenced by whether or not the decision was ethical but were largely unaffected by the consequences (career success or failure), whereas those lower in integrity were less influenced by whether the decision was ethical and more influenced by the career consequences.
Ethical dilemmas pit principles against expediency. Doing the right thing is a basis for acts of heroism and laudable accomplishment but often involves personal sacrifice. Doing the expedient thing is a basis
for acts of self-indulgence and opportunism but often at a cost to others. How people resolve the tension between principles and
expediency tests an individual’s character and a society’s ability to function effectively. Each path has a certain appeal—the principled
Correspondence concerning this article may be addressed to Barry R. Schlenker,
Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. E-mail:
Journal of Personality 76:2, April 2008 r 2008, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation r 2008, Blackwell Publishing, Inc. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00488.x
path for its integrity and the expedient path for its profits. Informa-
tive glimpses may be gained into the values, aspirations, and ideol- ogies of individuals and societies by examining whom they admire
and regard as a hero and what criteria they use to praise and con- demn others. The present studies examined individual differences in
whom people regard as their heroes, why they regard them as heroes, and how they judge others based on how those others resolve
conflicts between principles and expediency.
Principled and Expedient Ideologies: Commitment to Integrity
An ethical ideology is an integrated system of beliefs, values,
standards, and self-definitions that define an individual’s orientation toward matters of right and wrong or good and evil (Schlenker,
2007). It provides a moral schema for evaluating events and a moral identity that describes one’s ethical character. Principled ideologies
contain the ideas that ethical principles have a trans-situational quality, these principles should be followed regardless of personal
consequences or self-serving justifications, and integrity is inherently valuable and a defining quality of one’s identity. In contrast, expe-
dient ideologies involve the ideas that moral principles can be flexible, that it is important to take advantage of profitable opportunities and foolish to fail to do so, and that what might seem to be deviations
from principles can usually be justified. Schlenker (2007) proposed that personal commitment to a
principled ideology determines the strength of the relationship be- tween ethical principles and behavior. Personal commitment links the
self-system to the ethical principles, producing an accompanying sense of obligation to perform consistently with those principles and
a sense of responsibility for relevant actions (Schlenker, 2007; see also Schlenker, 1997; Schlenker, Pontari, & Christopher, 2001). There is then greater difficulty explaining inconsistent conduct and less per-
ceived flexibility to pursue unprincipled alternatives. This analysis is consistent with arguments, from several theoretical perspectives, that
people’s moral self-conceptions guide conduct across a range of sit- uations (Aquino & Reed, 2002; Blasi, 1980, 1983; Narvaez, Lapsley,
Hagele, & Lasky, 2005; Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Individual differences in reports of principled commitment can
be assessed with the Integrity Scale (Schlenker, 2007). Principled ideologies characterize people who regard themselves as having high
324 Schlenker, Weigold, & Schlenker
integrity. The first dictionary meaning of integrity is the ‘‘steadfast
adherence to a strict moral or ethical code’’ (American Heritage Dictionary, 2000), and synonyms include being honest, upright, and
incorruptible. The 18-item scale (see Appendix) focuses on the strength of people’s claims of being principled (as opposed to expe-
dient), and items assess the inherent value of principled conduct, the steadfast commitment to principles despite costs or temptations, and
the unwillingness to rationalize violations of principles. Although some items include references to truthfulness, lying, and cheating,
which are inherent to definitions of integrity, participants are left to define principles and right versus wrong for themselves.
Higher scores reflect stronger endorsement of a principled
ideology and the claim that one is a principled person with integri- ty, whereas lower scores reflect a more expedient orientation. Peo-
ple’s ethical ideologies may or may not coincide with their behavior, of course, so it is an empirical question whether those who express a
commitment to principles actually behave in a principled fashion. The scale demonstrates acceptable internal-consistency reliability
(Cronbach’s a ranged from .84 to .90 across 6 samples) and test- retest reliability (r5 .82 over 2–5 weeks; Schlenker, 2007). Confir- matory factor analyses supported the view that a single latent integ-
rity dimension, which appears to reflect the principled-expedient continuum, along with measurement effects from direct- and reverse-
scored items, underlies responses ( Johnson & Schlenker, 2007). So- cial desirability bias, which is a substantial problem with measures of
overt integrity (i.e., honesty testing) used in business (Sackett & Wanek, 1996), is small and accounts for under 3% of the common
variance (rs ranged from .05 to .17 in 5 samples; Schlenker, 2007). Given the conceptual rationale for the scale, integrity scores
should be related to respondents’ moral identities and their pro- social versus antisocial orientations toward others, and research shows that they are. In the personality realm, integrity scores are
positively related to scores on measures of the purpose and meaning in life, authenticity, empathy, trust, and self-esteem and negatively re-
lated to scores on Machiavellianism, self-monitoring, cynicism, nar- cissism, alienation, and the tendency to rationalize antisocial and
illegal conduct. Integrity scores are unrelated to measures of dogma- tism and the need for closure, indicating that the scale is not simply
assessing closed-mindedness (Schlenker, 2007). Further, integrity predicts reported helping and volunteering even after controlling for
What Makes a Hero? 325
empathy, as well as antisocial behavior, including lying, cheating,
stealing, and other undesirable behaviors (Schlenker, 2007). People’s levels of integrity are accurately perceived by their
friends, as evidenced by significant correlations between respon- dents’ own integrity scores and their friends’ appraisals of their in-
tegrity (Miller & Schlenker, 2007). Higher scorers also prefer to interact with others to see them as being high in integrity, whereas
those who score lower equally prefer evaluations of being principled or expedient (Miller & Schlenker, 2007). It is worth noting that vir- tually no one claims to be unprincipled. Instead, those who score
lower express more of a balance between principles and expediency, whereas those who score higher express a stronger commitment to
principles and greater aversion to expediency (e.g., compromising principles for profit).
Prior research has not examined how integrity is related to social judgment, particularly to admiration for others. The present studies
addressed evaluative social judgments.
Integrity and Heroes
Why Study Heroes?
Heroes can play important roles in people’s lives. Like any signifi- cant audience or reference group, heroes provide reference points for
goals, standards, and ways to behave. People’s perceptions of their heroes’ values, standards, and behavioral tendencies are integrated
into cognitive schemas, and these serve as mental templates for de- sirable ways to act in various social situations. As such, heroes
function as exemplars or models for desirable conduct as imagined judges of conduct and as social comparison targets. Although com-
paring oneself to heroes can produce a contrast effect and negative self-evaluations, it can also serve as inspiration to motivate self- improvement, produce the glow of basking in their accomplish-

Struggling to find relevant content or pressed for time? – Don’t worry, we have a team of professionals to help you on
Assignment: Interpersonal Judgment
Get a 15% Discount on this Paper
Order Now
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
Sign up, place your order, and leave the rest to our professional paper writers in less than 2 minutes.
step 1
Upload assignment instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Get personalized services with MyCoursebay
One writer for all your papers
You can select one writer for all your papers. This option enhances the consistency in the quality of your assignments. Select your preferred writer from the list of writers who have handledf your previous assignments
Same paper from different writers
Are you ordering the same assignment for a friend? You can get the same paper from different writers. The goal is to produce 100% unique and original papers
Copy of sources used
Our homework writers will provide you with copies of sources used on your request. Just add the option when plaing your order
What our partners say about us
We appreciate every review and are always looking for ways to grow. See what other students think about our do my paper service.
Another great paper! Thank you!
Customer 452707, June 16th, 2022
Writer did an excellent job! Thank you.
Customer 452693, January 14th, 2022
IT, Web
Great job on the paper!!
Customer 452885, January 30th, 2023
Social Work and Human Services
Customer 452587, August 3rd, 2021
Social Work and Human Services
The paper is impressive. Very professional and per the instructions
Customer 452533, May 24th, 2021
Thank you so much for your help so I do not go insane from trying to do this. I have 2 more courses to do. Probably will be using you again.
Customer 452675, November 28th, 2021
Great work! Thank so much!
Customer 452707, March 1st, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Excellent Work!
Customer 452587, July 28th, 2021
Looks good. Thank you!!
Customer 452525, April 27th, 2022
Customer 452653, October 31st, 2021
Everything was done perfectly. Thank you.
Customer 452707, June 15th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Great Work!
Customer 452587, November 2nd, 2021
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Get top-notch homework help now. 20% off first 10 orders!


Thank you for choosing MyCoursebay. Your presence is a motivation to us. All papers are written from scratch. Plagiarism is not tolerated. Order now for a 15% discount

Order Now