Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking

Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking The purpose of this assignment is to retrieve a nursing research publications based on an approved research problem. The goal is to be able to differentiate research from other types of publications, with a focus on recent qualitative and quantitative nursing research. At least one of the authors must be a nurse. Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking Instructions: 1. Submission of a Nursing Research Publications, based on Human Trafficking. a. Published articles are RESEARCH, the article needs to have been done on one the following levels of evidence: • Individual randomized clinical trials • Individual cohort study • Outcomes research • Individual case-control study • Expert Opinion ( The article that I attached is at this level of evidence) b. The article is from a quality peer?reviewed nursing journal c. At least one of the lead authors of the article is a nurse d. The study should be published in the past 5 years e. Maximum of 2 quantitative study permitted f. No meta?analyses or comprehensive reviews are permitted g. Copy of full article is required, not just abstract 2. Instructions Literature Review outline a. Introduction provided that includes research question and databases used for search and concepts used for search. Major headings provided. b. Summarize major findings of the study included under major heading ajph.2017.303858.pdf AJPH PERSPECTIVES permit entry to those with legal status in the United States only after revoking 100 000 visas from the seven Muslim-majority countries. The alarming nature of the executive order presumes that one chooses to be displaced or a refugee. But most refugees are forced out of their countries because of persistent war, torture, or persecution, and have the eventual goal of returning home once the environment has been deemed safe. Fortunately, many US organizations offer safe spaces for refugees and those looking to resettle. For example, New York State, long a site of refuge for immigrants, continues to open its doors to refugees and offers many locations that provide safety and security for those in need. More than just resettlement, the Mohawk Valley Resource Center for Refugees also provides free adult learning courses, job placement, legal consultation, and mental health and physician services as needed ( Similar facilities across the United States have garnered support from activist organizations such as the International Refugee Assistance Project, the American Refugee Committee, and Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service ( Donations for these organizations have skyrocketed since the signing of the 2017 executive order.7 Public health professionals can serve this vulnerable population by ?rst highlighting the precarious journey that refugees experience, then by understanding the devastating effects displacement can have on both children and adults, and ?nally by supporting refugees as they recover from the extreme trauma and stress.Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking 7 Promoting resiliency is an investment in both the short- and long-term health, treatment, and care of displaced and refugee persons in communities across the world. To avoid a potential mental health crisis, it is imperative that we act to care for and provide appropriate and supportive resources to displaced and refugee children. By extending services beyond physical needs, these children are more likely to have better developed neurological and biological systems— systems crucial for prosocial and nonviolent, resilient behavior. Kaylee Seddio, MS, CFLE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I acknowledge the support and encouragement of Wendy Middlemiss, PhD, through her guidance of writing this article. REFERENCES 1. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Figures at a glance. Available at: en-us/?gures-at-a-glance.html. Accessed February 27, 2016. Public Health Research Priorities to Address US Human Traf?cking In February 2017, the US presidential administration af?rmed a commitment to address human traf?cking. The US Traf?cking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Pub Law No. 106-386) de?nes human traf?cking as “the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.” Human traf?cking is often confused with smuggling, which involves the consensual but illegal transportation of a human across a national border. Victims of human traf?cking include US-born and naturalized July 2017, Vol 107, No. 7 AJPH citizens, permanent residents, legal visitors, and undocumented immigrants. They are traf?cked in commercial sex and myriad forms of labor, including domestic work, agricultural work, and construction work. Minors engaged in commercial sex are considered to be traf?cking victims, regardless of the use of force, fraud, or coercion. In ?scal year 2015, the US Department of Homeland Security and the US Department of Justice opened 2847 investigations of suspected human traf?cking cases and prosecuted 377 defendants for human traf?cking crimes.1 In that same year, the 21 federally funded victim services agencies in the United States reported 3889 open client cases. These cases are believed to represent a fraction of all human traf?cking activity in the nation.2 The negative health consequences of human traf?cking are well established and include neurologic, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, 2. Montgomery E. Trauma, exile and mental health in young refugees. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2011;(440):1–46. 3. Betancourt TS, Newnham EA, Layne CM, et al. Trauma history and psychopathology in war affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States. J Trauma Stress. 2012;25(6):682–690. 4. Dubow EF, Huesmann LR, Boxer P. A social-cognitive-ecological framework for understanding the impact of exposure to persistent ethnic–political violence on children’s psychosocial adjustment. Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2009;12(2): 113–126. 5. Kane JC, Ventevogel P, Spiegel P, Bass JK, Van Ommeren M, Tol WA. Mental, neurological, and substance use problems among refugees in primary health care: analysis of the Health Information System in 90 refugee camps. BMC Med. 2014; 12(1):228. 6. Hebebrand J, Anagnostopoulos D, Eliez S, et al. A ?rst assessment of the needs of young refugees arriving in Europe: what mental health professionals need to know. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016;25(1): 1–6. 7. Philbrick AM, Wicks C, Harris I, et al. Make refugee health care great [again]. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(5):656–658. dermatological, reproductive, sexual, dental, and mental health problems. Nonetheless, many questions remain about the nature and scope of human traf?cking, its determinants, and how to mitigate the problem. A public health approach to human traf?cking involves estimating the size of the problem; identifying risk and protective factors for victimization, perpetration, survival, and resilience ABOUT THE AUTHOR All of the authors are with HEAL (Health, Education, Advocacy, Linkage) Trafficking. Emily F. Rothman is also with the Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Hanni Stoklosa is also with Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston. Makini Chisolm-Straker is also with the Icahn School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai, Brooklyn, NY. Rumi Kato Price is also with the Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. Holly G. Atkinson is also with the Department of Medical Education, CUNY School of Medicine, New York, NY. Correspondence should be sent to Emily F. Rothman, Associate Professor, Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Community Health Sciences, 801 Massachusetts Ave, Floor 4, Boston, MA 02118 (e-mail: Reprints can be ordered at http:// by clicking the “Reprints” link. This editorial was accepted April 15, 2017. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303858 Rothman et al. Editorial 1045 AJPH PERSPECTIVES PROPOSED AGENDA FOR PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING 1. Determine the prevalence and incidence of human traf?cking with better precision. 2. Estimate the cost burden of human traf?cking. 3. Identify risk and protective factors for human traf?cking victimization, perpetration, survival and resilience. 4. Investigate effectiveness of healthcare screening and response protocols. Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking 5. Implement and evaluate human traf?cking prevention strategies. Source. HEAL Traf?cking Research Committee (https:// healtraf? across multiple levels of the social ecology; and developing evidence-based strategies to improve victim health. On the basis of this framework, and the existing evidence about early stage human traf?cking prevention efforts, we propose ?ve research priorities that should be accomplished over the next decade (see the box on this page). PRIORITY 1: PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE There is an urgent need to improve the precision of estimates of the number of human traf?cking victims in the United States or any one state, county, or city. The methods used to 1046 Editorial Rothman et al. calculate estimates of human traf?cking in the US are rarely described in the scholarly articles and government reports in which they are presented.3 Criminal justice data yield underestimates because many traf?ckers elude detection. Similarly, estimates from human traf?cking service provider agencies or hotlines may represent only a portion of cases or may overestimate cases. There have been at least two attempts to estimate the number of human traf?cking survivors in a particular US region using innovative methods such as capture–recapture techniques and respondent-driven sampling,3,4 but the resulting estimates are disparate and their accuracy is uncertain. It has been suggested that more precise estimates may be derived through the use of probability sampling, simple and systematic random sampling, nonprobability sampling, venue-based sampling, snowball sampling, chain referral sampling, respondent-driven sampling, or capture–recapture techniques.5 Once credible estimates have been generated, ongoing monitoring of the number of new cases per year (i.e., incidence) and percentage of the population experiencing victimization (i.e., prevalence) will enable policymakers to evaluate the effectiveness of policies and interdiction efforts. PRIORITY 2: COST BURDEN Understanding the cost burden of human traf?cking to health and human services and the criminal justice system will help clarify how to prioritize human traf?cking prevention relative to other problems. The cost burden cannot be estimated without sound estimates of prevalence and incidence, but once those estimates become available it will be important to assess the net cost of human traf?cking on individuals and communities to evaluate whether resources are being expended effectively. PRIORITY 3: RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS Meaningful prevention and intervention strategies cannot be developed on the basis of risk markers without causal relationship to human traf?cking. Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking The existing evidence base provides copious information about correlates of human traf?cking victimization, but researchers and program planners need more than lists of variables that are associated with human traf?cking victimization crosssectionally. Not all factors correlated or associated with human traf?cking are risk factors. Investigations of modi?able determinants of human traf?cking and factors contributing to resilience and survival among traf?cked people are necessary for the development of effective prevention and rehabilitation programs. PRIORITY 4: SCREENING AND RESPONSE Through state, regional, and local task forces, public health professionals and health care providers contribute to interdisciplinary antitraf?cking efforts across the United States. Additionally, many health care agencies are developing their own protocols to identify and respond to patients at risk for traf?cking. Although the health care setting may be ideal for interventions with victims, many worthwhile empirical questions remain about the investment of resources in healthcare programs to prevent or intervene in human traf?cking. First, there has been a proliferation of assessment tools for identifying human traf?cking victims (i.e., “indicator checklists”),6 but their predictive validity is unknown. The widespread use of screening protocols in the absence of sensitivity and speci?city data could cause entire subclasses of victims to be missed or burden clinicians and health systems with tools that only rarely correctly identify victims. Furthermore, even if clinical screening tools have good predictive validity, clinicians and agencies may be unable to assist traf?cked patients they identify if victim services are not available. To identify or expose someone as a traf?cking victim without a plan to adequately address her or his complex needs can endanger the patient. To ensure that responses to victims improve outcomes, researchers should engage in systems-level research to investigate healthcare institutions’ best practices for managing patients at risk for human traf?cking. PRIORITY 5: PREVENTION STRATEGIES As information accumulates about risk and protective factors for human traf?cking, comprehensive prevention strategies should be developed. These AJPH July 2017, Vol 107, No. 7 AJPH PERSPECTIVES strategies should be theoretically based, be evidence informed, address different levels of the social ecology, and involve multiple components. Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking Each prevention strategy should be developmentally appropriate for the age group it seeks to affect, be culturally appropriate, and work synergistically with other, related prevention strategies such as those designed to reduce partner violence and child maltreatment.7 Ultimately, antihuman traf?cking efforts should result in a reduction of human traf?cking incidence and improved identi?cation, survival, health, and well-being among survivors. However, little is known about the effectiveness of human traf?cking policies and programs or their long-term outcomes. Data collection and sharing are essential, as are policy analyses and natural epidemiology experiments. Studies of child protection, domestic violence, immigration, labor regulation, minimum wage, and drug and sex criminalization laws will provide key intersectional knowledge to advance the human traf?cking response. In conclusion, a robust program of research that achieves the ?ve priority aims outlined in this agenda will make substantial advances toward achieving the US goal of reducing human traf?cking and ending the suffering of the people who experience it. Emily F. Rothman, ScD Hanni Stoklosa, MD, MPH Susie B. Baldwin, MD, MPH Makini Chisolm-Straker, MD, MPH Rumi Kato Price, PhD, MPE Holly G. Atkinson, MD, on Behalf of HEAL Traf?cking CONTRIBUTORS This editorial was created collaboratively by members of the HEAL Traf?cking Research Committee. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Health, Education, Advocacy, Linkage (HEAL) Traf?cking is a multidisciplinary consortium of professionals whose mission is to shift the antitraf?cking paradigm toward approaches rooted in public health and trauma-informed care. HEAL comprises more than 1000 members, including physicians, mental health and behavioral specialists, nurses, advanced practice clinicians, social workers, public health professionals, attorneys, administrators, and researchers. The following committee members contributed to the original concept and writing: Harrison Alter, MD, MS, Stephanie Armstrong, MSN, RN, Danna Basson, PhD, MPP, Vijeta Bhambhani, MS, MPH, Lindsay Gezinski, PhD, Jamie Kynn, MA, MSW, PhuongThao D. Le, PhD, MPH, Kayse Lee Maass, PhD, Ochanya Ogah, Victoria Osasah, MPH, Katherine R. Peeler, MD, Anita Ravi, MD, MPH, MSHP, Preeti Panda, MD, Frances Recknor, DrPH, LCSW, Elizabeth Singer, MD, MPH, Kanani E. Titchen, MD, and Jessica Volz BSN, RN, FNE-A/P. July 2017, Vol 107, No. 7 AJPH Legal,3 reviewed in a previous issue of AJPH.4 d d Accuse science of deception, calling it “junk science” or “bad science,” claiming science is manipulated to ful?ll a political agenda. Attack the scienti?c institutions and government agencies perceived to be acting against corporate interests. 4. Williamson C, Perdue T, Belton L, Burns O. Domestic sex traf?cking in Ohio. 2012. Available at: http:// getattachment/1bc0e815-71b643f5-ba45-c667840d4a93/2012Domestic-Sex-Traf?cking-inOhio-Report.aspx. Accessed March 7, 2017. 5. Fedina L, DeForge BR. Estimating the traf?cked population: public-health research methodologies may be the answer. Journal of Human Traf?cking. 2017;3(1):21–38. 6. Stoklosa H, Dawson MB, WilliamsOni F, Rothman EF. Assignment: Literature Review on Human Trafficking A review of US health care institution protocols for the identi?cation and treatment of victims of human traf?cking. Journal of Human Traf?cking. 2016;4:1–9. 7. Nation M, Crusto C, Wandersman A, et al. What works in prevention: principles of effective prevention programs. Am Psychol. 2003;58(6–7):449–456. 1. US Department of State. Traf?cking in persons report. 2016. Available at: http:// Accessed September 20, 2016. 2. Nichols AJ, Heil EC. Challenges to identifying and prosecuting sex traf?cking d s d Insist that the science is uncertain by: s 1. ATTACK LEGITIMATE SCIENCE 3. Zhang SX. Measuring labor traf?cking: a research note. Crime Law Soc Change. 2012;58(4):469–482. REFERENCES What Public Health Practitioners Need to Know About Unhealthy Industry Tactics If you are working to improve public health and the environment, you need to know what your opponents are up to. Provided below is a quick guide to their tactics, which I have assembled as a summary from three sources: Oreskes and Conway’s Merchants of Doubt (reviewed in this issue),1 Wiist’s “The Corporate Playbook, Health, and Democracy: The Snack Food and Beverage Industry’s Tactics in Context,”2 and Freudenberg’s Lethal but cases in the Midwest United States. Fem Criminol. 2014;10(1):7–35. s Claiming we don’t know what’s causing it, and more research is needed. Withholding any data unfavorable to the corporate product. d d Using information in a misleading way; cherry-picking by using facts that are true but irrelevant. Insist that there are many causes to a health or environmental problem, and that addressing just one of them will have minimal impact. Exaggerate the uncertainty inherent in any scienti?c endeavor to undermine the status of established scienti?c knowledge. Use corporate-funded studies. ABOUT THE AUTHOR A. Rob Moodie is with the School of Public Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi, and the Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Correspondence should be sent to A. Rob Moodie, Professor of Public Health, College of Medicine, Private Bag 360, Blantyre, Malawi (e-mail: Reprints can be ordered at by clicking the “Reprints” link. This editorial was accepted April 15, 2017. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303861 Moodie Editorial 1047 … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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