Assignment: Neuroscientific Research Methods

Want create site? With you can do it easy.

Assignment: Neuroscientific Research Methods

Assignment: Neuroscientific Research Methods


Struggling to find relevant content or pressed for time? – Don’t worry, we have a team of professionals to help you on
Assignment: Neuroscientific Research Methods
Get a 15% Discount on this Paper
Order Now

Assignment:  Modern Neuroscientific Research Methods

1.5 Modern Neuroscientific Research Methods

Early investigators used two techniques to study the brain: lesioning and stimulation. Lesioning involves damaging or disrupting the function of a particular area of the brain. If a region of the brain is destroyed, then it cannot perform its usual function. The investigator would typically produce a lesion in an area of interest in the brain of an anesthetized animal. When the experimental subject recovered from the surgery, the investigators observed its behavior for any signs of impairment. Lesioning, then, demonstrates what happens when a brain structure is not functioning normally.

Most of the earliest lesioning studies involved ablation, or removal of a part of the brain. In the first studies, the brain region to be removed was merely ladled out with a sharp spoon. However, this rather crude procedure created a bruised area in the brain that became scarred and prone to produce epileptic seizures. Karl Lashley, the American psychologist you learned about earlier in this chapter, used a technique called hot wire thermocautery. After preparing his subject for the procedure, which involved anesthetizing it and opening its skull, Lashley placed the tip of a red-hot wire in the brain to burn away the area to be lesioned. This technique produced a neat lesion with little bleeding, but it did not eliminate scarring, which caused uncontrollable seizures.

Wilder Penfield perfected a suctioning technique to lesion the brains. He used a pipette, which looks like a medicine dropper, to draw out the brain tissue. This technique was superior to Lashley’s because it produced minimal, if any, scarring. All brain cells that did not have a good blood supply were easily removed, which meant that no dead tissue was left in the brain after surgery. Penfield’s suctioning technique is still used today by neurosurgeons and neuroscience investigators to remove brain matter.

Subcortical Lesions

Ablation techniques work fine when a cortical area of the brain is under investigation. However, an entirely different technique is needed when lesioning a structure beneath the cortex, called a subcortical brain structure. Think about the problems that would be encountered in lesioning a subcortical structure. First of all, the subcortical structure is not visible when the skull is opened, and it has to be located underneath the overlying cortex. In addition, care must be taken to lesion the subcortical structure without damaging the overlying brain. How is it possible to locate and lesion subcortical structures?

Think about how you might get to a city that you have never visited before. For starters, you might ask a friend how to get there, or you could pick up a road atlas and locate the city. And that’s exactly how brain investigators find unfamiliar brain structures: They consult with a colleague or read a published paper that describes another scientist’s research on that structure, or they use a stereotaxic brain atlas. A stereotaxic brain atlas contains dozens of maps of the brain, each map representing a slice through a particular region of the brain. There are atlases for human brains, dog brains, cat brains, rat brains, monkey brains, and even several species of bird brains.

An apparatus called the stereotaxic instrument was developed in 1908 by Victor A. H. Horsley and Robert H. Clarke to enable investigators to locate brain structures with precision. Because subcortical structures can be quite small, they are easy to miss if measurements are not precise.

wiL81028_01_c01_001-030.indd 12 7/10/13 12:24 PM

Did you find apk for android? You can find new and apps.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
Sign up, place your order, and leave the rest to our professional paper writers in less than 2 minutes.
step 1
Upload assignment instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Get personalized services with MyCoursebay
One writer for all your papers
You can select one writer for all your papers. This option enhances the consistency in the quality of your assignments. Select your preferred writer from the list of writers who have handledf your previous assignments
Same paper from different writers
Are you ordering the same assignment for a friend? You can get the same paper from different writers. The goal is to produce 100% unique and original papers
Copy of sources used
Our homework writers will provide you with copies of sources used on your request. Just add the option when plaing your order
What our partners say about us
We appreciate every review and are always looking for ways to grow. See what other students think about our do my paper service.
Mental Wellness
The skilled writer did a good job. I will add a few more details. Thank you, great job...
Customer 452547, June 17th, 2021
Customer 452813, June 29th, 2023
Human Resources Management (HRM)
The paper was delivered on time and I am very pleased with the writer's work.
Customer 452701, June 21st, 2023
Yes and thank you
Customer 452701, October 25th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
awesome job
Customer 452701, August 14th, 2023
Thgank you
Customer 452905, December 11th, 2022
Thank you , this is perfect !
Customer 452795, May 15th, 2022
excellent service! Not a beat missed!
Customer 452453, October 17th, 2021
Great job on the paper!
Customer 452885, December 14th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Customer 452701, August 16th, 2022
IT, Web
A great job on my paper!! I really appreciate this!!
Customer 452885, January 30th, 2023
Excellent work!! Thanks again!
Customer 452707, October 14th, 2022
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Get top-notch homework help now. 20% off first 10 orders!


Thank you for choosing MyCoursebay. Your presence is a motivation to us. All papers are written from scratch. Plagiarism is not tolerated. Order now for a 15% discount

Order Now