Assignment: occupational information

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Assignment: occupational information

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Assignment: What are the Importance of occupational information

Approximately 22 percent of the occupations in this country require a bachelor’s degree.

Occupational information has a more extensive use than facilitating individual choice. It is an essential ingredient in a comprehensive career development program.

Occupational information is an invaluable tool for facilitating the career development of children, adolescents and adults.

Important uses by category:

Children

To develop an awareness of the diversity of the occupational structure

To develop an awareness of their parents’ occupational and the nature of works in their community and beyond

To break down racial and sex-role stereotypes about people with disabilities

To develop an appreciation for the link between education and work

To develop economic awareness of the relationship of occupation to lifestyle

Adolescents

To sharpen their focus on personal identity as it relates to work

To help provide motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education and training programs

To begin reality testing by contacting and observing workers

To provide a basis for lifestyle planning

To eliminate stereotypes

To compare career opportunities in the provide and public sectors as well as in the military

Adults

To provide information about training opportunities that will enhance their current occupational performance

To provide information that allows them to evaluate their earnings related to others with similar jobs

To enhance skills that will allow them to conduct job searches across the nation and the world

To develop employability skills that will allow them to apply and interview for other jobs

To provide information about the rights workers who are disabled, older, female or minorities and how to lodge grievances when those rights are abridged

Retirees

To identify part-time or full-time job opportunities if they decide to return to work

To help them use the skills they have developed as workers or as volunteers

To assist them to continue lifetime planning

Occupational and Labor Market Information

Occupational information includes educational, occupational and psychological facts related to work.

This type of information comes almost entirely from governmental sources and for the most part focuses on individual jobs.

Labor market information includes data about the occupational structure and the trends that shape it.

The first comprehensive database of jobs in the U.S., The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), was published in 1939. The information was developed using observational strategies known as job analysis. DOT was last published by the U.S. Department of Labor in 1991.

O*NET, the replacement for DOT, asked workers in the jobs to rate the nature of work they perform, the abilities needed to perform the job and the nature of the work environment.

The content model of O*NET contains 6 domains of information:

Worker characteristics—individuals’ enduring characteristics that influence their motivation and capacity to function in an occupation. Three types included in O*NET: (abilities; occupational values and interests; work styles).

Worker requirements—individuals’ attributes that influence occupational performance across a range of activities (basic skills; cross-functional skills; knowledge; education).

Experience requirements—pre-requisite experiences in various types of jobs, specific job preparation, on-the-job training and certification and licensure requirements.

Occupational requirements—job requirements established for individuals across domains of work: (generalized work activities; organizational context; work conditions).

Occupation-specific requirements (occupational knowledge; occupational skills; tasks; duties; machines, tools and equipment).

Occupation characteristics (labor market information; occupational outlook; wages

Examples of Using O*NET

Not developed for use in print form, but print copies of 3 of the online assessment inventories used in conjunction with O*NET are available for sale from U.S. Government Printing Office (the Ability Profiler, Interest Profiler and Work Importance Locator)

Students and adults may view summary reports that include the most important characteristics of the workers in various jobs and the requirements of a particular job.

Can be used by an employer who wishes to write job descriptions

High school or college students can either type in an occupation of interest in the search box or complete the profiles.

Rehabilitation counselors can search for occupational options based on physical characteristics.

Educational policy makers may look at the skills and knowledges to set standards for jobs in their institutions

Business leaders can look at the data on work and organizational context to ascertain information about high-performance workplaces.

Additional Occupational Resources

The Occupational Outlook Handbook

Is available in print and online

Provides predictions about the future of both occupational clusters and individual occupations

Also includes brief descriptions of the duties performed on the job, working conditions, average salary data and information of how to prepare for each job listed.

Information about the Military

The Department of Defense has developed a website that provides an overview of jobs available in all four branches of the military ()

Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systems

State Systems

Other Types of Occupational Information

Simulations – range from simple role-playing exercises (client assumes role of the worker )to the use of highly sophisticated programs (training of airline pilots)

Games

Interviews with Experts

Direct Observation

Job Shadowing

Career Days

Career Conferences

Work Experience Programs

Career Fairs

Children’s Materials

Educational Information

Educational Institutions

Apprenticeships

Post-High School Opportunity Programs

Chapter 12

Virtual and Brick and Mortar Career Centers

Design and Implementation

One-Stop Career Centers

In 1994, The Department of Labor Employment and Training Agency (DOLETA) responded to the criticism that their services overlapped and in some instances were difficult to access by developing the One-Stop Career Centers

They are located throughout the country in U.S. Employment Services offices as well as online.

The provide a full range of virtual resources and face-to-face services to job seekers

Brick and Mortar Career Centers

Have been established in community colleges, vocational technical schools four-year institutions, U.S. Employment Security offices, libraries and businesses.

117

Establishing a Career Center (CC)

Basic Criteria for Locating and Designing a CC

Accessibility

For people with visual disabilities (well lighted areas, tactile directions, signs and elevators, closed caption videos, alternatives to keyboard and mouse use, audio versions of graphics)

For people with hearing disabilities (rooms equipped with alternative emergency notices, available telecommunications devices for the deaf [TDD])

For people with mobility issues (wheelchair accessible entrances, registrations desks telephone and restrooms; easy access to buildings)

Attractiveness

Ease of operation

Covers a variety of areas including the filing system used, storage and display of material, policies about checking out materials and nature of assistance provided to users of the CC

Responsiveness

Reflect diversity

Renovating or developing a CC

The first step is to select a coordinator who understands technology and it application

Enlist the support of organization’s leadership

Establish a steering committee that can assist in setting objectives and designing the program that will be offered to client groups

Basic Technological Competencies

Use available software to develop web pages

Use web-based systems to provide outreach and education programs

Identify and evaluate web-based career decision-making programs and assessment packages that can be used in the CC

Help clients search for career-related information via the Internet

Help clients prepare and post online resumes and conduct virtual job interviews

Apply the legal standards and ethical codes that relate to career services on the Internet

Design social networking support groups that support job hunters

Design and deliver ethically and legally sound web-based career counseling programs

Evaluate the quality of a web-based career center

Evaluate the efficacy of Internet-based job listing and placement programs

Criteria for Collecting Materials

The group that will make major use of the materials

The nature of the community

The staff who will use the materials

How the materials will be used

Auxiliary local resources

Critical CC resources

Who Can Benefit from Self-Directed Online Offerings (virtual CC’s)?

CC’s need to establish procedure for screening potential users of web-based tools to ascertain who can take advantage of self-directed experiences and who cannot

Users should have the verbal ability necessary to use the systems in the CC

Students with goal instability or low self-efficacy may not benefit from the system and may need to engage in traditional career counseling

Poorly motivated clients are unlikely to benefit

Students (clients with low self-esteem or negative thinking) are unlikely to benefit

Anxiety and depression are barriers

Lack of information or misconceptions about web-based tools

People who have significant should not rely solely on web-based tools.

Using the Internet to Provide Career Counseling and Assessment

Two major factors dominate the decision of whether to offer web counseling

Meeting students and counselor comfort with the process

Several options available to counselors

May use email to correspond with their clients

May use chat rooms

Webcams open the possibility of “face-to-face”

Guidelines to guide practitioners who provide web counseling

Obtain parental permission when providing services to minors

Make sure information obtained from clients is stored in a secure place

Ensuring quality of services is the same quality provided in person

Getting permission from clients when releasing information

Making clients aware that technical difficulties may interrupt the service from time to time

Informing clients that miscommunication can occur when nonverbal cues are not available

Finding out whether clients can contact the service provider at times other than when services are being provided

Providing clients with hyperlinks to licensing boards and professional associations so that ethical complaints can be lodged if necessary

Maintaining a list of referral sources in the client’s locale in the event that the online counseling becomes inappropriate or nonproductive

Discussing cultural or language differences that might impact the counseling process

Utilizing Websites as Adjuncts to Web Counseling

Before linking the CC website to another website, a careful evaluation of the site should occur by answering the following questions:

When was the site last updated? Useful sites are updates regularly

Who developed and maintains the site? Can this person or agency be contacted via email to answer questions?

Are the sources of the information on the website reputable?

Is the reading level of the material appropriate for your clients?

Can the material on the website be accessed easily?

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