Assignment: Prevalence and Incidence Rates

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Assignment: Prevalence and Incidence Rates

Assignment: Prevalence and Incidence Rates

Assignment: Prevalence and Incidence Rates

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Assignment: Prevalence and Incidence Rates
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NR714 Week 7 Module 4 Quiz Latest 2017 November (all correct answers) Question 1 3.25 / 3.25 pts You have been asked to be a guest speaker on prevalence and incidence rates at a local university. What is the best introductory statement to begin your lecture? “Prevalence rates are very different from incidence rates and will be discussed in two different classes.” “Prevalence and incidence rates are the same concept; therefore, we need only discuss one”. “Prevalence rates and incidence rates are related, but distinct concepts.” “Incidence rates are often expressed in fractions or ratios.” Question 2 3.25 / 3.25 pts You are a scientific voting member on a community hospital institutional review board. You are the primary reviewer for a research study aimed at reducing the occurrence of Diabetes among young adult African-Americans in the U.S. Part of the background information in the protocol states that in 2010, 18.7% of all African-Americans with Diabetes were aged 20 years and younger. You explain to the board that this percentage represents prevalence of Diabetes in African-American young adults. incidence of Diabetes in African-American young adults. the mean or average number of Diabetes cases in African-American young adults. a genetic component of Diabetes cases in African-American young adults that cannot be changed with diet. Question 3 3.25 / 3.25 pts A nurse researcher tells you about a research study that reported 15,600 new cases of Type I Diabetes annually between 2002 and 2005. She says that this is an unacceptable prevalence rate for Type I Diabetes and that as a Nurse Practitioner, she has an obligation to provide patient education in her practice. What is your best response to her? “I agree that we need to make every effort to reduce this prevalence rate.” “I agree that we should focus our attention on reducing the incidence of Type I Diabetes. 15,600 new cases indicates incidence rather than prevalence.” “Those may be cases related to genetics, so providing education may not help’” “That is a small prevalence rate, so I would rather provide education in other areas.” Question 4 3.25 / 3.25 pts You are asked to explain the difference between prevalence and incidence to the administration team at your hospital. Which is the best response? Incidence refers to new cases of a disease, while prevalence refers to existing cases of a disease. For example, the incidence rate is the number of new cases per population, while prevalence is the number of existing cases per population. Prevalence refers to existing cases of a disease, while incidence refers to new cases of a different disease within the population of interest. Prevalence refers to new cases of a disease, while incidence refers to existing cases of a disease. For example, the prevalence rate is the number of new cases per population, while the incidence is the number of existing cases per population. Prevalence refers to existing cases of a disease, while incidence refers to new cases of the same disease in a different population. Question 5 3.25 / 3.25 pts A nurse colleague confers with you regarding a research article he is reading aimed at reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). The authors report a baseline finding on the prevalence of CAUTIs in a large metropolitan hospital. Of the 325 patients who had indwelling urinary catheters, 18 were found to have a CAUTI. Which response below is indicative of prevalence in this population? There is insufficient information to determine the prevalence rate Without the hospital bed size, the prevalence rate will not be accurate 325/18 = 18.05 18/325 = 0.055 Question 6 3.25 / 3.25 pts The local Quickie Clinic is known to be busy and at capacity throughout the year. You are looking into the number of patients presenting with hypertension. Each year, 37,000 patients are seen and 20,000 of these patients are diagnosed with hypertension. What is the incidence of newly diagnosed patients each year? 20,000/37,000 = 0.54 20,000 37,000/20,000 = 1.85 37,000 Question 7 3.25 / 3.25 pts As a nurse researcher, you know that some cases of prevalence are reported per 100,000 people. This is helpful when the prevalence rate is low. For example, if your hospital has 50 dermal ulcers per 100,000 patients, it is easier to report 50/100,000 patients than 0.0005. With this knowledge in mind, which of the following statistics would be more suited to report by cases per 100,000? 0.070 0.50 0.0008 0.065 Question 8 3.25 / 3.25 pts A fellow nursing student tells you that he proposed to conduct a research study on the impact of air quality on the incidence of lung cancer in his hometown. What information is the student aiming to collect? The prevalence of lung cancer cases in his hometown. The percentage of existing cases of lung cancer possibly related to poor air quality. The number of lung cancer cases per 100,000 residents in his hometown. The number of newly diagnosed cases of lung cancer in his hometown. Question 9 3.25 / 3.25 pts Let’s say you are relocating to a new city for a new career opportunity. Which of the following scenarios would you be more likely to choose? City A where Asthma prevalence rates are high, but incidence rates over the last 2 years were zero. City B where Homelessness prevalence rates are low, but incidence rates are increasing by 20 each year. City C where the prevalence rates for Parkinson’s rates are high and incidence rates over the past 5 years are equally high. City D where TB prevalence is high, but incidence of TB is on a slight decline. Question 10 3.25 / 3.25 pts You read a news report about a high prevalence rate of lung cancer in a local community. You read further to find that the incidence rates of lung cancer have rapidly declined over the past 5 years. What would be the most plausible explanation below for these findings? The community’s smoking cessation campaign has been effective. There is not enough information. Smoking has likely increased among the population. The use of asbestos in construction has increased.

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