Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation

Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation Create a Keynote/PowerPoint presentation on all of the following topics — Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation Key concepts in palliative care delivery Appropriate utilization of palliative care Utilization of palliative care in the treatment of neurology patients Compare and contrast palliative care and hospice care The business case for palliative care Be sure, as part of your slide content for each topic, to cite material from the target article readings. Use the APA format as a guideline. Grammar and spelling count. Create a PowerPoint/Keynote presentation with At least 20 slides (at least 4 slides per topic), not including the title slide and the reference list/bibliography For each topic, add notes at the bottom of 2 slides to enhance the content The slide presentation must adhere to the guidelines established by the American Psychological Association (APA) in its most current edition. Students unfamiliar with the APA style requirements should immediately contact the National University Writing Center for direction and assistance. Notes for the tutor: -Please use APA to cite the sources/articles I attached to this question board. -There are 5 topics above. Please answer each topics with 4 slides per topic (total 20 slides). -For each topic, add notes/comments at the bottom of 2 slides to enhance the content. boersma_palliative_care_and_neurology_2014.pdf cassel_business_case_for_palliative_care_2015.pdf strand_palliative_care_mayo_clinic_2013.pdf VIEWS & REVIEWS Palliative care and neurology Time for a paradigm shift Isabel Boersma, MS Janis Miyasaki, MEd, FRCPC, MD Jean Kutner, MD, MSPH Benzi Kluger, MD, MS Correspondence to Dr. Kluger: benzi.kluger@ucdenver.edu ABSTRACT Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. Neurology® 2014;83:561–567 GLOSSARY MS 5 multiple sclerosis; PD 5 Parkinson disease. In a 1996 review, the American Academy of Neurology Ethics and Humanities Subcommittee stated: “Many patients with neurologic disease die after long illnesses during which a neurologist acts as the principal or consulting physician. Therefore, it is imperative that neurologists understand, and learn to apply, the principles of palliative medicine.”1 Similarly, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires neurology residents to receive instruction in end-of-life and palliative care.2 However, research suggests that there are major gaps in the education of neurology resident physicians in these topics and low levels among neurologists of referrals for palliative care services.3,4 While palliative care emerged in the treatment of patients with terminal cancer, more recent developments in this field suggest that palliative care may be appropriate for any patient living with advanced, progressive illness or multiple comorbidities. As examples, palliative care been successfully applied to chronic illnesses such as heart failure,5 chronic pulmonary disease,6 and end-stage renal disease.7 There is also an emerging interest, in both research and clinical care, to apply these principles in neurology.8–10 Our goal in this article is to provide a starting point for neurologists to become more knowledgeable and comfortable with the principles of palliative medicine. Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation Supplemental data at Neurology.org WHAT IS PALLIATIVE CARE AND WHAT IS HOSPICE CARE? Many health care professionals, including neurologists, hold misconceptions about palliative care.11 The most common misconception is that palliative care is synonymous with hospice. The lack of clarity regarding the similarities and differences between palliative care and hospice likely influences the view that only patients nearing the end of life are suitable candidates for palliative care.12 Similarly, some health care professionals believe palliative care is “giving up on patients” or “no care”; however, research efforts suggest that early palliative care interventions may positively affect both quality of life and survival.13 Notably, palliative care can be used alongside curative treatments.14–16 From the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry (I.B., B.K.) and Internal Medicine (J.K.), University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora; and Department of Neurology (J.M.), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Go to Neurology.org for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology 561 Table Hospice guidelines for neurologic disorderse18 Dementia 1. Stage 7C or higher on the FAST scalee19 AND 2. One or more of the following in the past year: aspiration pneumonia, pyelonephritis, septicemia, stage 3 or 4 pressure ulcers, recurrent fevers, other conditions suggesting limited prognosis, or inability to maintain sufficient fluid/caloric intake in past 6 months (10% weight loss or albumin ,2.5 g/dL) 1. Palliative Performance Scalee20 score #40% AND Stroke or coma 2. Poor nutritional status with inability to maintain sufficient fluid/caloric intake (10% weight loss in 6 months, 7.5% weight loss in 3 months, serum albumin #2.5 g/dL, or pulmonary aspiration resistant to speech therapy interventions) Other neurologic disease including ALS, PD, MD, MG, or MS 1. Critically impaired breathing including dyspnea at rest, vital capacity ,30%, O2 need at rest, AND refusal of artificial ventilation, OR 2. Rapid disease progression (to bed-bound status, unintelligible speech, need for pureed diet, and/or major assistance needed for ADLs) with either: A. Critical nutrition impairment in the prior year (inability to maintain sufficient fluid/caloric intake, continuing weight loss, dehydration, AND refusal of artificial feeding methods) OR B. Life-threatening complications in the prior year (recurrent aspiration pneumonia, pyelonephritis, sepsis, recurrent fever, OR stage 3 or 4 pressure ulcers) Generic criteria 1. Terminal condition (can be multiple conditions) AND 2. Rapid decline over past 3–6 months as evidenced by progression of disease signs, symptoms and test results, decline in PPS #40%, and involuntary weight loss .10%, and/or albumin ,2.5 g/dL Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation Abbreviations: ADL 5 activities of daily living; ALS 5 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; FAST 5 Functional Assessment Staging Test; MD 5 muscular dystrophy; MG 5 myasthenia gravis; MS 5 multiple sclerosis; PD 5 Parkinson disease; PPS 5 Palliative Performance Scale. The Center to Advance Palliative Care defines palliative care as “specialized medical care for people with serious illnesses. This type of care is focused on providing patients with relief from the symptoms, pain, and stress of a serious illness—whatever the diagnosis. The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and the family. Palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work with a patient’s other doctors to provide an extra layer of support. Palliative care is appropriate at any age and at any stage in a serious illness, and can be provided together with curative treatment.”17 Notably, palliative care may be applicable early in the course of illness, including the time of diagnosis, to help the patient adjust to the many changes in their life and life plans.18,19 Similarly, palliative care may complement life-prolonging therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and investigations needed to better understand and manage distressing clinical complications.15 Palliative care describes an approach to patient care available from the time of diagnosis through bereavement and may be delivered in conjunction with standard care or through specialized services including hospice care, inpatient palliative care, outpatient palliative care clinics, and home palliative care. Hospice care refers specifically to palliative care for the end of life. In the United States, the Medicare hospice benefit is available to patients certified by 2 physicians to have a prognosis of 6 months or less if their disease runs its natural course and who have chosen directly or through surrogates to focus medical care on comfort.20,21 It is offered when disease-directed treatments are no longer wanted or beneficial. The table provides 562 Neurology 83 August 5, 2014 hospice eligibility guidelines for specific neurologic conditions. However, it should be noted that patients with poor prognoses may be eligible for hospice without meeting these specific guidelines. The palliative care approach augments traditional care for neurology patients in several ways. While traditional approaches emphasize the preservation of function and prolongation of life, palliative care draws additional attention to the relief of suffering and places importance on planning for decline and death as an expected and natural outcome rather than as a failure of medical treatment.22 Palliative care transcends the historical patient-physician dyad by addressing caregiver strain and offering supportive services to family members such as respite care and counseling.22,23 Finally, palliative care assesses and treats medical, psychosocial, and spiritual issues including not only pathologic diagnoses but other sources of distress, including normal reactions to living with a life-threatening, progressive, and/or disabling illness. Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation WHAT ARE THE PALLIATIVE CARE NEEDS OF NEUROLOGY PATIENTS? This question can be bro- ken down into related questions: Would neurology patients and family members benefit from palliative services? Are neurology patients receiving adequate care in these areas? On the basis of both questions, we believe there is a substantial and growing need for neurologists to apply the principles of palliative medicine to the care of patients with progressive, chronic illnesses.1,9 Regarding the question of benefit, neurologic diseases are largely incurable, reduce life expectancy,24 and are associated with pain, depression, and other symptoms that are difficult to control.25 Miyasaki et al.26 showed that symptom burden in advanced Parkinson disease (PD) is similar to that in metastatic cancer. Caregivers of neurology patients also have similar, if not higher, rates of distress and burnout as caregivers of patients with cancer.27 Regarding the question of adequacy of current palliative services, place of death and documentation of advance directives offer objective measures of physician performance. Hospital deaths among patients with chronic neurologic disorders are high: 43% for PD and 56% for multiple sclerosis (MS).28 However, hospice deaths are extremely uncommon in PD and MS: 0.6% and 2.5%, respectively.28 Only 9% of patients with idiopathic PD die in their own home compared with 17% of the general elderly population.29 These are striking statistics because research overwhelmingly indicates that the majority of patients prefer to die at home.30 Furthermore, although neurologists broach advance care planning late in the disease course if at all, patient surveys suggest that at least 50% of patients with PD want to discuss advance care documents with their physician early in their disease course.31 Even in patients with advanced dementia, less than 20% have advanced directives documented.32,33 Regarding symptom management, multiple studies show that neurologists frequently fail to adequately assess and treat many symptoms associated with quality of life including depression, fatigue, pain, and sleep.34–36 DO NEUROLOGY PATIENTS HAVE UNIQUE PALLIATIVE CARE NEEDS? We propose that tradi- tional models of palliative care do not sufficiently address the unique needs of patients and family members living with a neurologic diagnosis. Moreover, palliative physicians who are largely trained in internal medicine may have less comfort with neurologic illness than cancer or other medicine diagnoses.37 Patients with a life-limiting neurologic illness often have a long and variable disease progression punctuated by cognitive impairment, behavioral issues, and communication problems, in addition to motor symptoms.38 This trajectory differs from the sharp decline seen in many patients with cancer.39 Fortunately, palliative care services are increasingly recognizing the needs of noncancer patients, particularly in rapidly progressing neurologic conditions such as motor neuron disease.38 Differences between neurology and other patients include symptom profiles, psychosocial issues, caregiver needs, and effects on spiritual well-being. Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation As examples, patients with motor neuron disease experience more demoralization, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation than patients with metastatic cancer40; patients with brain cancer have distinct symptom profiles including more cognitive problems, seizures, and communication deficits than patients living with other types of cancers41; and patients with Huntington disease have distinctive social work needs as the result of combined behavioral, psychiatric, movement, and cognitive issues.42 Notably, young patients with Huntington disease can be particularly challenging to place in nursing homes, and social workers experienced in caring for these patients are necessary to provide the highest quality of care.43 In our clinical experience regarding spiritual well-being, neurology patients experience their disease as something intrinsic to their person, which clearly differs from patients with cancer who see “the cancer” as something outside of themselves. The physical and cognitive disabilities associated with neurologic illness also contribute to feelings of being “useless” or a “burden” and may contribute to higher rates of demoralization.40 Neurologic diseases are associated with caregiver distress and reduced quality of life related to caregiving,44 well-being, depression, and demoralization.45,46 Caregivers of patients with dementia are more adversely affected by their role, have unique psychological issues compared with cancer caregivers (e.g., losing parts of their spouse one day at a time, delusions of infidelity),47 and are at high risk of complicated bereavement.48 WHAT PALLIATIVE CARE SKILLS DO NEUROLOGISTS NEED? All physicians, including neurologists, should have familiarity and comfort with several fundamental palliative care skills including communicating bad news, nonmotor symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, and caregiver assessment. For more complex or advanced patients, referral to palliative care specialty teams may be appropriate, including inpatient palliative care consultation, outpatient palliative care clinics, home palliative care, or hospice. COMMUNICATION AT THE TIME OF DIAGNOSIS Data from patients with heart failure have shown that palliative care should start at the time of diagnosis,49 yet research suggests that physician communication is often inadequate or ineffective, particularly for new diagnoses.50,51 This impression was reinforced at a round-table discussion at a continuing medical education event where patients with PD and caregivers discussed their experience of being diagnosed, including not having enough time for questions, not understanding what their diagnosis actually meant, not knowing where to go for support, and feeling abandoned by their doctor after being given bad news. Regarding ways to communicate bad news, there are a number of tools physicians can utilize including SPIKES (Setting up the interview, assessing patient’s Perception, obtaining patient’s Invitation, giving Neurology 83 August 5, 2014 563 Knowledge, address Emotions, Strategy and Summary)52 or the Vital Talk Web site and smartphone application.53 When delivering a serious diagnosis, physicians must bring their full attention to the patient and figure out what they know about the diagnosis. Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation Obtaining an invitation before sharing sensitive information such as prognosis and other potentially distressing information refers to finding out how much the patient wants to know and is especially important in the initial interview. Using open-ended questions and assessing emotions and feelings are critical to optimally support the patient. It is crucial that neurologists finalize the meeting with a follow-up including what to do when the patient has had a chance to process the information and now has more specific questions. This practice is particularly helpful to support the patient and minimize feelings of abandonment.52 SYMPTOM ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT Neurologists need to carefully assess and treat nonmotor symptoms such as pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleep, constipation, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction. Multiple studies in several populations have shown that nonmotor symptoms over time are among the most function-limiting for patients, and affect caregiver burden and overall quality of life more than motor symptoms.54–56 The management of these debilitating symptoms depends on their recognition by physicians.57 Research suggests that as many as 50% of patients with PD who have depression are not treated, despite evidence that treatment parallels that of the general population (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression and anxiety).58,59 Some issues may not be readily treatable, but should still be closely followed (e.g., dementia, dysphagia, and weight loss/nutritional status) because they may require additional support or affect advance care planning. ADVANCE CARE PLANNING All neurologists should be knowledgeable about and feel comfortable discussing advance care planning with their patients while the patient is cognitively able. Many patients have never heard of advance care planning, and 30% of patients with advance care plans do not share these with their physicians.Assignment: Principles in Palliative Care Presentation 60 Contrary to the common clinical perception that patients do not want to discuss advance directives, patients often cite their expectation for physicians to initiate this discussion when asked about barriers to planning for the future, and patients who engage in end-of-life conversations with their doctors report greater satisfaction with their care.e1,e2 Notably, having conversations about death and dying with patients lowers the risk of aggressive treatment at the end of life.e2 Advance care planning includes topics such as medical durable power of 564 Neurology 83 August 5, 2014 attorney, financial power of attorney, living will, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation directive. Physicians may also want to less formally discuss overall goals of care including understanding important life goals and patient and caregiver fears. Health care professionals who care for neurology patients should have regionspecific information regarding these topics readily available for patients and keep an updated copy of completed forms with patient records. Patients should also be informed to keep these documents on their refrigerator and distribute copies to family members. CAREGIVER ASSESSMENT Caregivers are at risk of chronic illness,e3 impaired sleep,e4 depression,e5 and cardiovascular disease,e6,e7 and can have up to a 60% increased mortality rate compared with agematched controls that are not caregivers.e8 The increase in caregiver mortality rates is related to both providing care and strain,e8 which in caregivers of patients with PD, has been shown to increase with disease progression.e9 It has also been shown that caregivers of patients residing in nursing homes and caregivers who are well supported and do not report feeling distress have lower mortality rates.e8 Caregiver quality of life is also associated with patient quality of life—thus, when patients spend their last months of life in the intensive care unit or die a traumatic death, it affects caregivers.e10 Caregiver support from neurologists begins by adequately assessing their needs. The very act of asking caregivers how they are doing is often met with gratitude and may relieve caregiver concerns that their only role in the patient’s illness is supportive. Caregiver assessments should include questions relating to their ability to provide adequate care to the patient and also to self-care.e11 Assistance with providing care may include home safety evaluations, information regarding the illness, understanding the role of medications, and knowing who to contact and how to handle complications or emergencies including b … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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