Intro to Psychology
1. The behavioral research perspective is similar to the sociocultural research perspective because both focus on how behavior and mental processes are explained by:
A.internal factors such as genes
B.the external environment
E.problem-solving skills and reasoning
2. Which of the following cortical areas is most closely associated with vision?
3. The following are a description of__________________
-examining the relationship between 2 variables -correlation coefficient (r) indicates the strength and direction of the relationship (-1 to +1) -correlation does not imply causation
a. Correlational research
c. Experimental research
4. The following are a description of__________________
-first psych lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879
-goal: break down behavior(s) into component parts to better understand elemental components
-decision time experiments
5. The following are a description of__________________
-neuron is not stimulated
-membrane and ion pumps help maintain potential
-more sodium(Na+) ions on outside and more potassium (K+) and large, negative proteins on the inside of cell membrane
b. resting potential
d. feature detectors
6. The following are a description of__________________
-William James (first American psychologist)
-started first American school of psych
-opposed structuralism; interested in why certain behaviors
-goal: understand the function of different behaviors
7. What two disciplines had an influence on early psychology?
a. Anthropology and history
b. Biology and medicine
c. Philosophy and biology
8. Which psychologist was one of the strongest advocates of behaviorism?
a. William James
b. John B. Watson
c. G. Stanley Hall
9. What type of research is needed to determine a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more variables?
a. Correlational studies
b. Longitudinal studies
c. Experimental studies
10. A positive correlation indicates that as one variable goes up, the other variable also ________________.
a. Goes up
b. Goes down
c. Stays the same
11. The first step in the scientific research method is to:
a. Form a testable hypothesis
b. Collect data
c. Perform statistical analysis
12. Out of the following correlations, which indicates the strongest relationship?
13. Which type of neuron transmits information from the brain to the muscles of the body?
a. Sensory neurons
c. Motor neurons
14. Once an electrical impulse reaches the end of an axon, it crosses the synapse via:
a. Terminal buttons
15. Which area of the brain is associated with reasoning, motor skills, higher lever cognition and expressive language?
a. The temporal lobe
b. The frontal lobe
c. The occipital lobe
16. Mind was a blank sheet at brith, tabla rasa, empiricism where the ideals of
a. John Locke
c. E.B. Titchener
d. hindsite bias
17. Jeanne’s therapist asks her to recount a violent dream she recently experienced in order to gain insight into the unconscious forces affecting her behavior. Jeanne’s therapist is working from a _______________ perspective.
18. “It is behavior that can be observed that should be studied, not the suspected inner workings of the mind.” This statement was most likely made by someone with which perspective?
a. Cognitive perspective
b. Neuroscience perspective
c. Humanistic perspective
d. Behavioral perspective
19-21. Match these forms of research to their definition:
a. Naturalistic observation
b. Survey research
c. Case study
i. ______ directly asking a sample of people questions about their behavior
ii. ______looking a behavior in the true setting without intervening in the setting
iii. ______doing an in-depth investigation of a person or small group
22. A psychologist wants to study the effect of attractiveness on willingness to help a person with a math problem. Attractiveness would be the ____________ variable, and the amount of helping would be the ______________ variable.
23. The _________________ is the most basic structural unit of the nervous system.
24-25. Neurons receive information through their ______________ and send messages through their ________________.
26. The gap between two neurons is bridged by a chemical connection called a ______________.
27-28. The central nervous system is composed of the _______________ and the ________________.
29. The portion of the brain that is responsible for the executive functions is the _____________.
30. The portion of the brain that is responsible for language is the __________________.
31. A prediction of how two or more variables are likely to be related is called a
32. Which of the following is desirable in research?
a. having the control and experimental conditions differ on several variables
b. interpreting correlations as implying causality
c. systematic manipulation of the variable(s) of interest
d. using samples of participants who are more capable than the population you
want to draw conclusions about
33.John believes that growing up in an abusive family causes children to become physically violent. He wants to draw the strongest possible conclusion about causality with the fewest ethical concerns; therefore, he should use
a. Case studies
34. Which is not true of a naturalistic observation?
a. provides a lot of rich information
b. technique to gather descriptive data
c. no one will act differently if they know they are being observed
d. observations may be biased if recorded by someone not trained
35.In the experimental design, the variable that a researcher manipulates is the
a. independent variable