1) It is not unusual to hear an adult tell a child, “You can grow up to be anything you want to be.” Considering the influence of socioeconomic status on career development, does this actually appear realistic? Is there anything that individuals, society, or the government could do in order to help this statement be true for everyone? If no, why? If yes, what?
2) When testing a client, what two ways could a counselor’s behavior affect the validity of the data gathered from the test results? In what ways could a counselor’s behavior affect the reliability of the data gathered from the test results? Explain.
3). Could a psychological test and assessment be invalid and still have reliability? Why or why not?
Childbirth Setting and Attendants In 2013 in the United States, 98.6 percent of births took place in hospitals (Martin & others, 2015). Of the 1.4 percent of births occurring outside of a hospital, approximately two-thirds took place in homes and almost 30 percent in free-standing birthing centers. The percentage of U.S. births at home is the highest since reporting of this context began in 1989. An increase in home births has occurred mainly among non-Latino White women, especially those who are older and married. For these non-Latino White women, two-thirds of their home births are attended by a midwife.
The person who helps a mother during birth varies across cultures. In U.S. hospitals, it has become the norm for fathers or birth coaches to be with the mother throughout labor and delivery. In the East African Nigoni culture, by contrast, men are completely excluded from the childbirth process. When a woman is ready to give birth, female relatives move into the woman’s hut and the husband leaves, taking his belongings (clothes, tools, weapons, and so on) with him. He is not permitted to return until after the baby is born. In some cultures, childbirth is an open, community affair. For example, in the Pukapukan culture in the Pacific Islands, women give birth in a shelter that is open to villagers, who may observe the birth.