Canadian National Health Plan

Canadian National Health Plan
Canadian National Health Plan
The week 3 D1 discussion post is Canadian National Health Plan and must have references attached that are scholarly.
The week 3 Discussion Post D2 is Research Formats with information from Chapters 2 and 4 of the text by Monette, Sullivan, Cornell, Dejong, and Hilton (9th Ed). 2014
Week Three assignment should prepare for the Final Paper which is due in week 5 which focuses on evaluating research studies and reports to analyze a specific topic within a Health and Human Services research area. Please follow the directions closely from week three’s assignment and post and kindly have scholarly resources that are valid.
The publicly funded health-care system in Canada is dynamic; improvements have been implemented throughout the last four decades and will continue to be implemented in response to changes in medicine and society.
The fundamentals, on the other hand, remain the same: universal coverage for medically necessary health care services based on need rather than ability to pay.
Background
The core values of justice and equity, as seen by Canadians’ willingness to share resources and responsibility, are represented in Canada’s health-care system, which has undergone several revisions and major reforms since its foundation.
As the country’s population and circumstances change, as well as the nature of health care itself, the system has been and continues to be updated.
Our Health-Care System Has Changed
The powers of the federal, provincial, and territory governments are outlined in the Constitution of Canada.
The provinces were granted responsibility for creating, maintaining, and managing hospitals, asylums, charities, and charitable institutions under the 1867 Constitution Act, while the federal government was given power over naval hospitals and quarantine.
The federal government was also given the authority to tax and borrow money, as well as spend it, as long as it did not interfere with provincial rights.
From 1867 until 1919, the federal department of Agriculture was responsible for federal health issues until the department of Health was established.
Both levels of government’s responsibilities have evolved over time.
Prior to WWII, health care in Canada was largely delivered and funded by the private sector.
Saskatchewan’s government implemented a province-wide, universal hospital care plan in 1947.
Both British Columbia and Alberta had similar schemes in place by 1950.
In 1957, the federal government passed the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act, which promised to reimburse, or cost share, half of provincial and territorial hospital and diagnostic services costs.
This Act established universal coverage for a defined set of services under consistent terms and conditions, which was administered by the government.
All provinces and territories committed to provide publicly financed inpatient hospital and diagnostic services four years later.
In 1962, Saskatchewan implemented a universal, provincial medical insurance plan to cover all residents’ medical expenses.
In 1966, the federal government passed the Medical Care Act, which promised to reimburse, or cost share, half of the costs of medical services performed by a doctor outside of hospitals.
All provinces and territories have universal physician services insurance policies within six years.
The federal government’s financial contribution to health care was calculated as a percentage (one-half) of provincial and territorial expenditure on insured hospital and physician services from 1957 to 1977.
Cost sharing was replaced by a block fund, in this case a combination of cash payments and tax points, under the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Established Programs Financing Act of 1977.
A block fund is a sum of money transferred from one government level to another for a specific purpose.
With a tax point transfer, the federal government lowers its tax rates while the provincial and territory governments raise their rates by the same amount.
As a result of the new funding model, provincial and territory governments now have the freedom to invest health-care funds according to their own needs and objectives.
The health transfer now includes federal transfers for post-secondary education.
The Canada Health Act was passed by the federal government in 1984.
The federal hospital and medical insurance statutes were repealed, and the concepts of those acts were consolidated by setting requirements for mobility, accessibility, universality, comprehensiveness, and public administration.
The Act also included restrictions prohibiting extra billing and user fees for insured services (for more information, see the federal government portion of this pamphlet).
Beginning in fiscal year 1996-1997, federal legislation passed in 1995 merged federal cash and tax transfers supporting health care and post-secondary education with federal transfers supporting social services and social assistance into a single block funding mechanism known as the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST).
The federal, provincial, and territorial leaders (or first ministers) struck an accord on health in 2000 that outlined important reforms in primary health care, medicines management, health information and communications technology, and health equipment and infrastructure.
At the same time, the federal government increased health-care cash transfers.
The Accord on Health Care Renewal, signed by the first ministers in 2003, called for fundamental changes to the health-care system to improve access, quality, and long-term sustainability.
Governments agreed to work toward targeted reforms in areas such as accelerated primary health care renewal, supporting information technology (e.g., electronic health records, telehealth), coverage for certain home care services and drugs, improved access to diagnostic and medical equipment, and improved government accountability.
Effective April 2004, the Accord enhanced federal government cash transfers to fund health care, and the CHST was split into the Canada Health Transfer for health and the Canada Social Transfer for post-secondary education, social services, and social assistance.
In 2004, first ministers announced more reforms in A 10-Year Plan to Strengthen Health Care.
Wait times management; health human resources; Aboriginal health; home care; primary health care; a national pharmaceutical strategy; health care services in the North; medical equipment; prevention, promotion, and public health; and enhanced reporting on progress made on these reforms were among the commitments made by the federal, provincial, and territorial governments.
To help fund the Plan, the federal government raised health-care financial transfers, including annual increases to the Canada Health Transfer from 2006-07 to 2013-14, ensuring consistent federal funding growth.
All provinces and territories officially agreed in spring 2007 to establishing a Patient Wait Times Guarantee in one priority clinical area by 2010 and to conducting pilot projects to test and inform the implementation of the guarantee.
Alternative care alternatives (e.g., referral to another physician or health care facility) are offered to patients whose wait periods surpass a predetermined window when medically necessary health services should be provided.
Refer to the Timeline, Additional Reference Sources, and On-Line Resources at the end of this pamphlet for more information on the history of our health-care system.
The Government’s Function
The Canadian Constitution, which divides powers and responsibilities between the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, is largely responsible for the organization of Canada’s health-care system.
The majority of the duty for supplying health and other social services falls to the provincial and territorial governments.
The federal government is also in charge of some service delivery for specific groups of people.
General revenue from federal, provincial, and territorial taxation, such as personal and corporate income taxes, sales taxes, payroll levies, and other sources, is used to fund publicly funded health care.
Provinces may also charge people a health premium to assist pay for publicly supported health care services, but nonpayment of the premium must not prevent residents from receiving medically essential health care.
Health is much more than just the health-care system.
The federal, provincial/territorial, and local or municipal governments share responsibilities for public health, which includes sanitation, infectious diseases, and related education.
These services, on the other hand, are often provided at the provincial/territorial and local levels.
The federal government is in charge.
The federal government’s responsibilities in health care include establishing and enforcing national principles for the system under the Canada Health Act, providing financial assistance to provinces and territories, and a variety of other functions, such as funding and/or delivering primary and supplementary services to specific groups of people.
First Nations individuals residing on reserves; Inuit; serving members of the Canadian Armed Forces; qualified veterans; convicts in federal prisons; and some refugee claimants are among these categories.
The Canada Health Act outlines health insurance plan criteria and conditions that provinces and territories must meet in order to receive full federal funding transfers for health.
Medically necessary hospital and doctor services must be made available to all provinces and territories.
Extra-billing and user fees are also prohibited by the Act.
Extra-billing is when a medical practitioner bills an insured health service for a higher sum than the provincial or territorial health insurance plan has paid or will pay for that service.
A user charge is any price for an insured health care that is permitted by a provincial or territorial health insurance plan but is not paid by the plan, other as extra-billing.
Through the Canada Health Transfer, the federal government distributes financial and tax transfers to provinces and territories to assist health.
The federal government also gives Equalization payments to less prosperous provinces and territorial financing to the territories to help cover the costs of publicly supported services, such as health care.
Primary care and emergency services on remote and isolated reserves where no provincial or territorial services are readily available; community-based health programs on reserves and in Inuit communities; and a non-insured health benefits program (drug, dental, and ancillary health services) for First Nations people and Inuit no matter where they live in Canada are all examples of direct federal delivery of services to First Nations people and Inuit.
Nursing stations, health centers, in-patient treatment centers, and community health promotion initiatives are all places where these services are offered.
In order to integrate the delivery of these services with the provincial and territorial institutions, both tiers of government and Aboriginal groups are increasingly collaborating.
Health protection and regulation (e.g., pharmaceuticals, food, and medical devices), consumer safety, and disease surveillance and prevention are all responsibilities of the federal government.
It also offers assistance with health promotion and research.
Furthermore, the federal government has implemented health-related tax policies, such as tax credits for medical expenses, disability, caretakers, and infirm dependants; tax rebates to public institutions for health services; and deductions for self-employed private health insurance premiums.

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