Discussion: African American Literature peer review

Discussion: African American Literature peer review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: African American Literature peer review Select one peer’s essay (one that hasn’t already been reviewed) and respond to these questions in detail to peer review it. Post the review on your peer’s post of his or her essay draft. Please write in complete sentences. Please note that you must point to specific examples in your peer’s paper when making suggestions for improvement. You will NOT receive for bland responses (Paragraph 3 is great or Your essay is fine to me!). Also, please number your responses as the questions are numbered, not lump all of your responses into a paragraph. Discussion: African American Literature peer review Questions to answer for peer review: 1—What is your first reaction to this essay? Please make sure your peer’s essay is not a PLOT SUMMARY ESSAY! You have not been asked to write a plot summary essay of the literature or a biographical sketch of the author’s life. I have read the literature, and I know the author’s biography. 2—Does the essay contain a clear thesis that is arguable and situates the topic the writer is exploring? 3–Does the title and beginning of the introduction grab you and draw you into the essay? Can you think of a grabbier beginning/title? 4—Does the essay flow logically with a logical order of paragraphs and transitions spread throughout that connect ideas? 5—Does the writer keep you engaged while supporting and explaining points throughout, or are there places you think need more details, more clarity, and/or more interesting language? Are there places where you find yourself bored or confused? 6—Is there anything that distracts you or seems unnecessary? 7—What are the essay’s greatest strengths? Be specific. 8—Does the essay have any major weaknesses? Be specific. Discussion: African American Literature peer review 9—What one change would most improve the essay? 10—What might make the essay more interesting? 11—Has the writer incorporated 3 scholarly sources to support his or her argument? 12–Has the writer smoothly integrated these sources into his or her argument? 13–Are at least 2/3 sources literary sources? 14—Is the paper the required length? 15—Any additional comments? peer_review.docx Bonita Almeida Professor Bowser African American Literature January 19, 2017 The Mulatto named Georges What extremes would one go to just to seek revenge on another of whom he once protected? Imagine a vengeance so deeply rooted in an individual that would cost him his own life because the underlying truth of his life was too late revealed to save him and the enemy of whom he loved unconditionally regardless of the pain and grievance he bestowed upon him over the years. In his story “The Mulatto,” author Victor Sejour creates a fictional character named Georges who through revenge causes his own tragic demise. It is through Georges’ determination, hatred, and unknown knowledge that embarks on the catastrophic demise of not only himself but his enemy as well. Georges was born to an African mother who was a slave and never knew who his father was. By law, he was born a slave, but he had some questions because he did not look like his fellow slave friends who were black. He was more fair skinned and was termed mulatto which means to have one African American parent and the other white which was not uncommon during the time period. The slave masters would often rape and impregnate their slaves and most would refuse to treat their mulatto children any different from the rest of the slaves. Sejour states, “Alfred refused to recognize him, drove the mother from his presence, and regulated her to the most miserable hut on his lands, despite the fact that he knew very well, as well as one can, that he was the child’s father” (300). Alfred was the slave master who raped Georges’ mother and is the father of Georges. But it all remained a mystery to Georges’ as he came of age. Georges grew up wondering who his father was as it all remained a mystery. Georges’ mother tells him “You don’t realize that he has forbidden me to speak to you about him and threatens you if I do…And Georges, don’t you see, this man’s hatred would be your death” (300). Discussion: African American Literature peer review It was not a secret that the slave masters would not want anything to do with their offspring produced by the slaves as it was a disgrace to the slave master’s wife. Most of the time, the slave masters would often auction the mother far away and even separate the mother and child depending on the master and his level of inhumane cruelty. In the context of the quote provided, Georges’ mother is fearful of even speaking her child’s father name as he has instilled the fear of God in her that he will hurt her if she ever revealed his identity to their son. He also threatened to harm Georges who was just a child at the time. Even on her death bed, Georges’ mother never revealed her son’s father true identity. Georges continued his journey of coming of age as a slave but the thought of finding his father never seemed to slip his mind. It is the job of the slaves to obey and protect their master at all times. In the context of protecting means that there were some rebels amongst the slaves who tried to kill their master and it was the job of the other slaves to always obey their master. Georges did just that and went to warn his master whose name was Alfred. Alfred was the typical slave master who loved everything about his power as a slave master as he was cruel and had no remorse for his brutal and horrific punishments he bestowed upon his slaves. Georges was different from most slaves who would jump for joy as the news of their master being slayed spread. Georges states, “At once; I order you…Master, you’re to be murdered tonight… Don’t worry, master, they’ll have to walk over my dead body before they get to you” (301-302). Georges felt a sense of loyalty as his duty as a slave to protect his master no matter how cruel and inhumane he was towards him. Even after Georges’ warning to his master proved not to be enough, his master fled and left him all alone with the rebels. It was not uncommon that the slave masters would hesitate in regards to believe any of his slaves as most would use that as an advantage to lure their master into their trap of premeditated murder. Alfred suspecting that Georges was a part of the rebels planned out attack fled to protect himself. He states, “Scoundrel… You’re trying to have me murdered, but your plot will fail” (302).Discussion: African American Literature peer review Georges was left alone and almost killed himself had Alfred not returned in his rescue as he realized that Georges was telling the truth. Alfred’s return and savior of Georges is very ironic in the eyes of a slave master who was cruel to his slaves. One could look at it in the perspective of his sense of loyalty as a master to the slave who honored him to warn and protect him. After risking his life to save that of his master, Georges laid wounded for a couple of days where Alfred would visit him. Georges had a wife named Zelia who was a mulatto as well and they had a son who was two years old. Alfred started to take interest in Zelia and commanded her to his room one day. Zelia was also different from most female slaves as she would not let him violate her like he did the others. Sejour states, “But, unfortunately for him, she was not one of these women who sell their favors or use them to pay tribute to their master” (303). While in the midst of trying to rape Zelia, who was fighting him off, Alfred lost his balance and hit his head. Zelia knew right then and there that she was doomed and her life was over even though she was protecting herself from that monster. After the incident with Alfred and Zelia, Zelia returned to Georges to tell him what happened but before he could regain consciousness to comprehend everything it was too late as Zelia was being tied up. Georges became enraged with anger as he tried to understand why his wife was being tied up, he knew the only way she was to be tied up was by the orders of their slave master. This was the turning point in Georges’ life as a slave who once loved and protected his master to now disliking him. He went to go and plead for his wife to be freed as news spread that she was to be exiled. He states to Alfred, “Master, she will probably be condemned; for only you and I know that she is innocent” (304). Georges finally said what all of the others wanted to but did not possess the bravery to do so. He called out Alfred and that just angered Alfred even more that his whole plan had been ceased. Georges states, “ah! She’ll die…she will die because she didn’t prostitute herself to you…because you’re white…because you’re her master…you lying coward” (305). Discussion: African American Literature peer review Georges’ point only infuriated Alfred even more as Georges’ figured out Alfred’s plan to rape his wife and get away with it like he did with everyone else. In the scholarly journal, Slavery Through the White-Tinted Lens of an Embedded Black Narrator: Sejour’s “The Mulatto” and Chesnutt’s “Dave’s Neckliss as intertexts written by Edward J. Piacentino entails of the analysis of slavery during the time the two stories were published. Piacentino explains that there would never be justice for the female slaves as the master held all the power and their fate in his hands. He states, “Under the regime of American slavery, women of color were not protected by the “philosophy of domesticity” (123). The quote is very significant as it explains the importance of the eras of slavery. No matter how wrong the slave master was for raping his slaves they were still perceived as inferior to that of the whites. Justice would never be served and they would never be looked at as the victim in the eyes of the white man. It also poses the underlying irony which entails the white man’s sexual interest in African Americans of whom he treated worse than animals. Georges’ hatred for Alfred grew more and more by the day as his wife’s fate lived in his conniving hands. Alfred’s mind was not going to change as he wanted Zelia to pay for what she had done to him. Georges’ threatened Alfred by stating, “You should know that your head will remain on your shoulders only so long as she lives…You should know that I will kill you, that I’ll drink your blood, if even a hair on her head is harmed” (305). The threatening of the slave master was not uncommon in the time period of when the slave rebellions occurred. The slaves of the rebellion started to gain confidence within themselves as the fear of their master started to diminish. Discussion: African American Literature peer review + In the scholarly journal, Biracial Promise and the New South in Minnie’s Sacrifice: A Protocol for Reading The Curse of Caste; or The Slave Bride, written by Leslie Lewis entails the 19th century perspective of the mulattos from a female writer’s perspective. To further explain why Zelia did not confront Alfred about the accident he caused himself is evidently presented by Lewis. She states, “The metaphorical confrontation between master and slave represents the originating moment of human self-consciousness. For all of these theorists, however, and for African Americanists who also work with the Hegelian master/slave moment of confrontation, such as Orlando Patterson and Eric Sundquist, both parties in this conflict are and must be men” (756). She further explains that the source of the slave men confronting the slave master created a male dominated relationship between the two as the relationships between the slave master and the female slaves were mostly sexually in relation. Zelia was exiled and three years later Georges put his plan of vengeance in motion for Alfred. Alfred had since married and became a father and that was nothing but music to Georges’ ears as he was once that man when his wife was taken from him innocently by Alfred. He snuck into Alfred’s room to carry out his plan of revenge. Once Alfred realizes who he is he pleads for help and forgiveness by stating, “Oh! have pity, Georges…don’t kill me, not today…” (307). Georges replies by stating, “Master, isn’t it horrible to die when you’re happy; to lie down in the grave at the moment you see your fondest dreams coming true…I think my vengeance is worthy of your own…I would have sold my soul to the Devil, had he promised me this moment” (307). Georges’ hatred for Alfred was too deep for Alfred’s sake let alone his wife. In Georges’ mind an eye for an eye was justice enough for him. After Alfred’s consistent pleading to live another day for the sake of his family, he states to Georges’ something that intrigued him. Alfred states, “In the name of your father…” (307). Georges overwhelmed in shock and anticipation states, “My father…my father…Do you know him…oh! tell me his name…What’s his name…oh! tell me, tell me his name…I’ll pardon you…I’ll bless you” (307). This is where both Georges’ and Alfred’s lives may have been spared until Alfred hears his wife scream in agony. As she kept screaming in discomfort for her husband, Georges held him down so he could not run to her rescue. Georges was too fast and young for Alfred to escape as he states, “No, master…I’m afraid not…I want your wife to die…right there…before your eyes…asking you for water, for air, while you can do nothing to help her” (308). Discussion: African American Literature peer review After she died, Alfred states, “Strike, executioner…strike…after poisoning her, you might as well kill your own fa—“(308). In that instant Georges killed Alfred as he beaded him. Sejour states, “The axe fell, and Alfred’s head rolled across the floor, but as it rolled, the head distinctly pronounced the final syllable, ‘—ther…” (308). In disbelief of what was just revealed to him, Georges committed suicide. In the play Mulatto: A Tragedy of the Deep South, written by Langston Hughes entails the courageous confrontation from a mulatto son to his white father. The author of the literary criticism article, Germain Bienvenu states, “Among whites, it is ironically his father–the person on whom Bert has built his white identity–against whom Bert holds the deepest grievances. But Bert’s rebellious contempt for Norwood is not surprising, since it results from almost a lifetime of abuse heaped upon Bert by a father who will not acknowledge the paternity of his mulatto offspring” (Vol. 26, Issue 2). Georges fell victim to his hatred and vengeance of his master’s evil ways that in return ruined his life. All Georges wanted was revenge for taking away what meant the most to him. It was a relief once he finally achieved his goal but too late once he realized that he not only killed his master but his father as well. He had remorse as he heard the dragging of the word ‘father’ as he killed Alfred stating “Ah! I’m cursed…” (308). As Bienvenu stated previously about the character Bert’s deepest grievances stemmed from his father of whom was white and neglected him for years. There are a lot of similarities between the two characters as Georges’ grievances stemmed from his father as well. Both fathers chose to hide their identities from their sons as if they were ashamed of them. The children were the product of their violations and possession of power used over their victims who were to obey their masters. Georges would no longer be able to live his life day to day knowing that he killed his own father in which if he had prior knowledge of beforehand he would have not killed him. His unconditional love for Alfred was proven since he first saved him from the thieves. His love would overpower his hatred for him as a master for crucifying his innocent wife. His longing to identify his father was one of the most important things to him as he almost forgot about his intentions on killing Alfred. Discussion: African American Literature peer review But his determined hatred and vengeance for his master led him to kill his father and in return himself as he his last words grieved of remorse. Works Cited: Sejour, Victor. “The Mulatto.” The Norton Anthology of African American literature. 298-309. 1837. Print. Piacentino, Edward J. “Slavery Through The White-Tinted Lens Of An Embedded Black Narrator: Sejour’s ‘The Mulatto’ And Chesnutt’s ‘Dave’s Neckliss’ As Intertexts.” The Southern Literary Journal 1 (2011): 121. Literature Resource Center. Web. 19 Jan. 2017. Lewis, Leslie W. “Biracial Promise And The New South In “Minnie’s Sacrifice”: A Protocol For Reading “The Curse Of Caste; Or The Slave Bride..” African American Review 40.4 (2006): 755. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 19 Jan. 2017. Bienvenu, Germain J. “Intracaste Prejudice In Langston Hughes’s Mulatto.” African American Review 26.2 (1992): 341. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 19 Jan. 2017. … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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