Discussion: Evidenced-based research

Discussion: Evidenced-based research ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Evidenced-based research write a synthesized literature review ( THE TOPIC OF THE REVIEW IS THE CORRALATION BEATWEEN BULLYING AND SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN ADOLESCENTS BETWEEN THE AGES OF 11-17 ). Synthesize a minimum of 16 research articles ( SEE THE UPLOADED FILE WITH THE 16 ARTICLES THAT ARE TO BE USED FOR THE LITERATURE REVIEW ) Use the TEMPLATE found in the resources above and the sample review as a guide ( SEE UPLOADED FILE). Discussion: Evidenced-based research You are not presenting everything about each study that you have read. Rather, present only the parts of the articles/studies which are applicable to your study. MUST BE WRITTEN IN written in a scholarly manner, APA References (references included already in uploaded file). article_references.docx example_of_a_literature_review.docx proposed_research_study.docx Alavi, N., Reshetukha, T., Prost, E., Antoniak, K., Patel, C., Sajid, S., & Groll, D. (2017). Relationship between Bullying and Suicidal Behaviour in Youth presenting to the Emergency Department. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(2), 70–77. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5510935/ Altangerel, U., Liou, J., & Yeh, P. (2014). Prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(3), 362-372. doi: 10.1007/s10597-013-6957-8 Brunstein K, A., Snir, A., Caqrli, Wasserman, C., Hadlaczky, G., Hoven M, C., Sarchiapone, M & . . . Wesserman, D. (2016). Association between victimization by bullying and direct self injurious behavior among adolescence in Europe: a ten-century study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiary, 25(11), 1183-1193. doi: 10. 1007/Soo787-0160840-7 Chin, Y., & Choi, K (2015). Suicide attempts and associated factors in male and female Korean adolescents a population-based cross-sectional survey. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(7), 862-866. doi: 10.1007/s10597-015-9856-6 Holland, K., Vivolo-Kantor, A., Logan, J., & Leemis, R. (2017). Antecedents of suicide among youth aged 11-15: A multistate mixed methods analysis. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 46(7), 15-1610. doi: 10.1007/s10964-0610-3 Holt, M. K., Vivolo- Kantor, A. M., Polanin, J. R., Holland, K. M., DeGue, S., Matjasko, J. L., Wolfe, M., & Reid, G. (2015). Bullying and suicidal ideation and behaviors: A meta analysis. Pediatrics. 132(2), Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/135/2/e496 Monto, M. A., McRee, N., & Deryck, F. S. (2018). Nonsuicidal self-injury among a representative sample of US adolescents. American Journal of Public Health. 108(8), 1042-1048. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304470 Mueller, A. S., James, W., Abrutyn, S., & Levin, M. L. (2015). Suicide ideation and bullying among US adolescents: Examining the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity. American Journal of Public Health. 105(5), 980-985. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302391 Roberts, N., Axas, N., Nesdole, R., & Repetti, L., (2016). Pediatric emergency department visits for mental health crisis: Prevalence of cyber-bullying in suicidal youth. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 33(5), 469-472. doi: 10.1007/s10560-016-0442-8 Sampasa-Kanyinga, H., Roumeliotis, P. & Xu, H. (2014). Association between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideations, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren. Plose ONE, 9(7), 1-9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102145 Sohn, M., Oh, H., Lee, S., & Potenza, M. N. (2018). Suicidal ideation and related factors among Korean high school students: A focus on cyber addiction and school bullying. Journal of School Nursing. 34(4), 310-318. doi: 10.1177/1059840517734290 Thomas, H.J., Connor, J.P., Lawrence, D.M., Hafekost, J.M., Zubrick, S.R., & Scott, J.G. (2017). Prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization and perpetration in a nationally representative sample of Australian youths. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Kodish, T., Herres, J., Shearer, A., Atte, T., Fein, J. & Diamond, G. (2016). Bullying, depression, and suicide risk in a pediatric primary care sample. The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 37(3), 241-246. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000378 Psychiatry, 51(9), 909?920. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417707819 Van Geel, M., Vedder, P. & Tanilon, J. (2014). Relationship between peer victimization, cyberbullying and suicide in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis JAMA Pediatrics, 168(5), 435-442. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4143 Wang, C., Li, Y., Li, K., & Seo, D-C. (2018). Body weight and bullying victimization among US adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 42(1), 3-12. doi: https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.42.1.1 Williams, S. G., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Wornell, C., & Finnegan, H. (2017). Adolescents transitioning to high school: Sex differences in bullying victimization associated with depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Journal of School Nursing, 33(6), 467-479. doi: 10.1177/1059840516686840 Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS A Literature Review of the Efficacy of Needle Exchange Clinics in Reducing HIV Student Name Faculty Name course Month Day, Year Institution’s Name 1 LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 A Literature Review of the Efficacy of Needle Exchange Clinics in Reducing HIV Newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is gaining new ground as a fast growing epidemic. According to Aspinall (2013) injection drug users (IDUs) accounted for approximately 10% of new HIV diagnosis in 2009. In many communities, this new onslaught of not only HIV infections but an increase in injection drug use (IDU) is causing financial and social strain. The use of needle exchange clinics (NECs) to supply IDUs with clean, sterile needles is an issue that is hotly debated in these same communities. This proposed study will assist and guide communities in determining if a NEC is helpful in reducing the rates of HIV, and will examine the rates of HIV before implementation of a NEC and six months after implementation of a NEC. The use of NECs is not new, with the first NEC in the United States opening in 1985 (Barreras, 2013). There have been multiple challenges to the full implementation of NECs, and in some states. the NEC continues to be illegal. To address the growing HIV and injection drug use epidemic, it is important to define the correlation between implementation of NECs and their impact on HIV rates/incidences. According to Des Jarlais et al (2015), urban NECs exchange 4.4 million syringes per year, with rural programs exchanging 2.7 million per year. Organization of the Review This proposed study is designed to be an experimental study and will be designed similarly to studies found in the literature related to the dependent and independent variables. The independent variables being studied are: the geographic location of participants (urban versus rural), age, race/ethnicity, gender, drug of choice, educational level/literacy, rates of and habits related to syringe/needle borrowing and financial/economic status. The dependent value is the HIV status of the participant at the beginning of the study. LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 Definitions There are several key words that are used throughout the literature review. Definitions of these words are as follows: Injection drug user (IDU): Persons who inject drugs using needles/syringes (Des Jarlais et al, 2015). Injection equipment: Equipment such as cookers, needles and syringes that are used to inject drugs (Rich & Adashi, 2015). Harm reduction interventions: Interventions that “have potential to change environmental risk factors by providing places to obtain clean syringes” (Marotta, 2015, p.3). Harm reduction interventions were initially introduced in the United States by Edith Springer in the 1980s (Clarke et al, 2016). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A virus spread through certain body fluids that attacks the body’s immune system (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). Needle: will be defined as a “slender, solid, usually sharp-pointed instrument used for puncturing tissues”; in this study, needles that are used to inject drugs intravenously (Medical Lexicon, n.d.). Is used with a syringe to inject drugs into the veins. Needle exchange clinic (NEC): A community clinic run by the local health department which provides clean, sterile needles in exchange for used “dirty” syringes/needles. Respondent driven sampling (RDS): A “sampling and recruitment method based on long-chains of peer referrals used internationally to access hard-to-reach populations for surveillance and research purposes” (Kim et al, 2015). LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 Structural interventions: Interventions where “changes in policy and legal environment have facilitated an increased availability of sterile syringes” (Quader, 2013, p. 2879). Substance abuse: inappropriate use of legal and/or illegal drugs, including repeated use of the drug(s) to produce pleasure, relieve stress or to avoid reality (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014). Discussion: Evidenced-based research Syringe: An instrument used for injecting or withdrawing fluids, consisting of a barrel and plunger (Medical Lexicon, n.d.). Is used with needles to inject drugs into the veins. For this literature review, the following keywords were searched using CINAHL: needle exchange clinic, syringe exchange clinic, injection drug use, implementation of needle exchange, people who inject drugs. While there were thousands of articles available in recent publications, by reducing the search parameters to articles published from 2013 forward, those with references and abstract available, and peer reviewed articles and studies, the literature was able to be narrowed down to 16 articles. Of the 16 articles utilized in this review, 13 were research articles, one was an editorial, and the remaining two were case studies from a social services viewpoint. Nine of the articles mirrored the desired outcome of the proposed research study-to examine the correlation, if any, between NEC and reduction in HIV rates. Five of the articles examined behavioral trends in needle and injection equipment sharing practices and were helpful in that aspect. One article addressed the potential financial impact of NEC implementation and disease reduction, and one was an editorial/opinion piece supporting NEC. Ten of the articles focused on the United States, three on China, and one in Europe, China and Pakistan, which illustrates that this is not solely a local or national issue, but an issue that needs to be addressed globally. Taken together, all 16 articles added value to the literature review by presenting a multifaceted view of a complicated issue. LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 Quantitative Research Question The quantitative research question being addressed with this literature review is at what rate does HIV infection decrease 6 months following the implementation of a community based, health department run needle exchange clinic. Variables Geographic Location. Siddiqui et al (2014) and Kim et al (2015) studied IDUs in the San Francisco and San Diego area, both of which are densely populated. Nguyen et al (2014) addressed the United States as a whole, and focused on differences in rural versus urban rates of IDU and HIV. Age IDUs in the Siddiqui et al (2014) study were between the ages of 18 and 30. In Luo et al (2014) median age of study participants was 35. An age range of 34-54 represented 50% of Clarke’s (2016) study. Gender The majority of study participants who are IDU were male, with Siddiqui et al (2015) reporting 63% of participants as male. This was seen with several other studies, as Des Jarlais et al (2015) reporting 70% of participants as being male. The Tuchman (2015) study focused solely on women. Race/Ethnicity Siddiqui et al (2014) showed that 71% of participants were white/Caucasian. Bahji et al (2014) echoed this, reporting 62.2% of participants as Caucasian. Tuchman (2015) reported that of study participants, 36% were African American, 16% Latina and 48% Caucasian. Drug of Choice LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 Overwhelmingly, heroin was reported as the drug of choice. In the study conducted by Bahji et al (2014) 23.7% reported heroin as drug of choice. Heroin was also shown in Wang et al (2014) to be the drug of choice of 80% of study population. Clarke et al (2016) lists heroin as drug of choice in 70% of participants, followed by 30% reporting methamphetamine and 4% reporting cocaine as drug of choice. Educational Level/Literacy In Luo et al (2014) 56.7% of NEC patients had less than a middle school education. This was seen by Bahji et al (2014) as well, with 56.7% reporting less than high school education. Wang et al (2014) had the highest rate of less than high school education, at 80%. As many as 81 (58%) of participants in the Samo et al (2013) study were illiterate. Educational needs should be considered when implementing any harm reduction interventions; issues such as reading level and ability need to be considered. Financial/Economic Status Samo et al (2013) showed a mean monthly income that was equivalent to $125 and 11.4% were not employed. Siddiqui et al (2014) reported that 33% of study participants were unemployed as well. Rates of and Habits Related to Syringe/Needle Borrowing Bahji et al (2015) found that 7.8% of participants reported sharing syringes regularly. This phenomenon was not uncommon, with several other studies such as those by Wang et al (2014) and Kim et al (2015) showed 25% and 10.5% respectively, of participants shared needles and/or injection equipment. Discussion: Evidenced-based research Proposed Methodology LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 The proposed methodology is to use a simple time-series design, as there would be no control group available, and comparisons would be made to the infection rate both before and after the implementation of the NEC. The basic question that could/would be answered is whether or not there was a statistical difference in the rate of newly diagnosed HIV infection before the implementation of a needle exchange clinic (NEC) and the rate of newly diagnosed HIV infection after the implementation of the NEC. The NEC patients would be given the option to participate and their information would be numerically coded to protect confidentiality. To assess variables as discussed above, a face to face interview with a trained interviewer/surveyor would be conducted with each participant in which answers to a set list of questions would be transcribed by the interviewer. The goal would be to enroll 100 study participants. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) could potentially be employed by recruiting and interviewing “seeds” and having the seeds recruit from their social networks. Theoretical Framework None of the articles and/or studies stated a specific theoretical framework i.e.; caring, adaptation, or change. However, there were theoretical questions proposed by several authors, including Aspinall et al (2014), who proposed that there is a high risk for transmission of HIV and other blood borne diseases through sharing of needles. This theory is echoed by Burt & Thiede (2016) who also theorize that IDUs frequently share needles, increasing their risk of disease transmission. Des Jarlais et al (2015) discussed the issue of an increasing number of IDU in rural areas, with a dearth of NECs available in those areas. Often, in the more rural areas, NEC are inaccessible due to lack of transportation and/or funds to pay bus or taxi fares. Nguyen et al (2014) presented a mathematical formula to show the financial aspects not only of treatment of HIV, but how investment in NEC actually saves money and resources over time. LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 Population, Subjects, Proposed Sample The population that is impacted by the proposed study is the IDU and the communities they live in. With the increasing number of IDUs and the increase in new HIV infection rates, the risk is not solely the IDU’s. Communities are also at risk, both socially and financially. As IDUs tend to be less educated and less financially stable, their needs are often based around lack of access to clean needles, and lack of access to educational and job opportunities. The IDU population may also require information to be presented in ways they can easily understand i.e.; if a participant is only able to read at a third grade level and has attended school through the ninth grade only, the educator should be mindful of the potential that information would need to be presented differently than to a participant who is college educated. Financially, caring for those with HIV is costly, and this cost is usually borne by the community via Medicaid and other social programs. Ngyuen et al (2014) found that of the 2575 new HIV infections every year, lifetime treatment costs for these patients can be as high as $1.10 billion. If an investment of $10 million into NEC and other harm reduction interventions were made, approximately 194 new cases could be averted at a cost savings of $75.8 million (Nguyen et al, 2014). Discussion: Evidenced-based research An investment of $50 million per year would prevent 816 new HIV infections, thus saving $269.1 million in lifetime treatment costs (Nguyen et al, 2014). The proposed sample will be obtained from a community based, health department run NEC, and will be selected via convenience sampling. The literature used for this review employed a wide variety of methods to obtain data, including descriptive statistics, qualitative and quantitative studies, mathematical modeling and meta-analysis. Taken together, they provide a comprehensive view of the current status of NEC and the patients they serve, as well as the financial and health costs of injection drug use. LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 Data Collection Tool/Instrument The most recent data is presented by Clarke et al (2016), which states that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate more than 1.2 million people are living with HIV currently. As recently as 2013, 7% of the 3,096 newly diagnosed HIV infections were attributable to IDUs (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). The data obtained from the proposed study will be compared to the statistics provided by the CDC regarding HIV and injection drug use rates. If an adequate number of participants was not able to be obtained via convenience sampling, use of RDS would also be considered. Data Analysis The data obtained through the proposed study will be analyzed utilizing lab results that are publicly reported by the chosen needle exchange clinic (NEC) in addition to an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study will be longitudinal, with data being collected over a 6month time frame with a goal of enrolling 100 participants (Creswell, 2014). Sample size could be increased if a larger NEC were selected for study. Paired sample t-test is “a statistical technique that is used to compare two population means in the case of two samples that are correlated” (Statistical Solutions, n.d.). Because this test is commonly used in before and after studies, it would also be effective in analyzing data. The comparison would be of the IDU population before the NEC was implemented and the rate of HIV infection versus the rate of HIV in the IDU population after implementation of the NEC. Overall, the majority of the articles reviewed showed a direct link between implementation of NEC and declines in new HIV infections. Rich & Adashi (2015) showed that states that operate NEC have shown significant drops in HIV infection rates. Rates of sharing of injection equipment was also lower after implementation of NEC (Burt & Thiede, 2016). LITERATURE REVIEW OF NEEDLE EXCHANGE CLINICS 2 Quader at al (2013) suggests that distribution of sterile equipment such as needles and syringes, with a “coverage” of more than 10 syringes per IDU per year has a significant impact on rates of sharing of equipment and rates of HIV. There are various ways to obtain clean, sterile syringes, but NEC appears to be the most common. Pharmacies are being used by IDUs; however, there is a negative connotation related to pharmacies as places to obtain clean needles/syringes (Siddiqui et al, 2015). The reasons for this are not clearly known or stated; however, there is the potential that this is because of the stigma attached to injection drug use, and IDUs may not feel as comfortable in the pharmacy setting as they do in the NEC setting. Other Considerations Related to the Proposed Study There are considerations … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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