Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs)

Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs) ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs) Analyzing Published Research: The purpose of this paper is to interpret the two articles identified as most important to the group topic Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs). Please see rubric. I will also enclose the original paper I wrote with the references that will be needed for this paper, the rubric, and a matrix table that needs to be completed. Total pages 3 plus the matrix table. Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs) nr449_rua_analyzing_published_research.pdf nr449evidencematrixtable_1.docx evidenced_based_practice_rua_week NR449 Evidence Based Practice Required Uniform Assignment: Analyzing Published Research Purpose The purpose of this paper is to interpret the two articles identified as most important to the group topic. COURSE OUTCOMES This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes: CO 2: Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (POs #4 and #8) CO 4: Evaluate published nursing research for credibility and clinical significance related to evidence- based practice. (POs #4 and #8) DUE DATE Refer to the course calendar for due date information. The college’s Late Assignment policy applies to this activity. TOTAL POINTS POSSIBLE: 200 POINTS REQUIREMENTS The paper will include the following. 1. Clinical question a. Description of problem b. Significance of problem c. Purpose of paper 2. Description of findings a. Summarize basics in the Matrix Table as found in Assignment Documents in e-College. b. Describe i. Concepts ii. Methods used iii. Participants iv. Instruments including reliability and validity v. Answer to “Purpose” question vi. Identify next step for group 3. Conclusion of paper 4. Format a. Correct grammar and spelling b. Use of headings for each section c. Use of APA format (sixth edition) d. Page length: three pages NR449 Evidence Based Practice PREPARING THE PAPER 1. Please make sure you do not duplicate articles within your group. 2. Paper should include a title page and a reference page. DIRECTIONS AND ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA Assignment Criteria Clinical Question Points % 1. Problem is described: What is the focus of your group’s work? 2. Significance of the problem is described: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations. 3. Purpose of your paper: What will your paper do or describe? “The purpose of this paper is to . . .” 30 15% Description of Findings: Summary 60 Description 30% Description of Findings: Description 60 30% Description of Findings: Conclusion 20 10% **Please note that although most of these questions are the same as you addressed in paper 1, the purpose of this paper is different. You can use your work from paper 1 for items 1 and 2 above, including any suggestions for improvement provided as feedback. Item 3 above should be specific to this paper. Summarize the basics of each article in a matrix table that appears in the appendix. Describe in the body of the paper the following. • What concepts have been studied? • What methods have been used? • Who are the participants or members of the samples? • What instruments have been used? Did the authors describe the reliability and validity? • How do you answer your original “purpose of this paper” question? Do the findings of the articles provide evidence for your answers? If so, how? If not, what is still needed to be able to answer your question? • What is needed for the next step? Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Conclusion: Review major findings in your paper in a summary paragraph. Format Total 30 200 15% 1. Correct grammar and spelling 2. Use headings for each section: Problem, Synthesis of the Literature (Concepts, Methods, Participants, Instruments, Implications for Future Work), Conclusion. 3. APA format (sixth ed.): Appendices follow references. 4. Paper length: Three pages 100% NR449 RUA Analyzing Published Research.docx Revised 07/25/2016 2 NR449 Evidence Based Practice GRADING RUBRIC Assignment Criteria Clinical Question (30 points) Outstanding or Highest Level of Performance Very Good or High Level of Performance Competent or Satisfactory Level of Performance A (92–100%) B (84–91%) C (76–83%) Includes all elements in a manner that is clearly understood. Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs) • Problem description provides focus of the group’s work. • Significance of the problem is clearly stated and supported by current evidence. • Purpose of paper is clearly stated. Missing only one element OR One element is not presented clearly • Problem description provides focus of the group’s work. • Significance of the problem is clearly stated and supported by current evidence. • Purpose of paper is clearly stated. 26-27 points Missing two elements OR One element is not presented clearly • Problem description provides focus of the group’s work. • Significance of the problem is clearly stated and supported by current evidence. • Purpose of paper is clearly stated. 23-25 points Poor, Failing or Unsatisfactory Level of Performance F (0–75%) Missing two or more elements AND/OR One or more elements are not presented clearly • Problem description provides focus of the group’s work. • Significance of the problem is clearly stated and supported by current evidence. • Purpose of paper is clearly stated. 0-22 points 28-30 points Description of Findings: Summary (60 points) Summary omits no more than one required item from the Evidence Matrix Table. 55-60 points NR449 RUA Analyzing Published Research.docx Summary omits two or three required items from the Evidence Matrix Table. 51-55 points Revised 07/25/2016 Summary omits four required items from the Evidence Matrix Table. 46-50 points Summary omits five or more required items from the Evidence Matrix Table. 0–45 points 4 NR449 Evidence Based Practice Description of Findings: Description (60 points) Description includes ALL elements. • What concepts have been studied? • What methods have been used? NR449 RUA Analyzing Published Research.docx Description missing no more than one element. • What concepts have been studied? • What methods have been used? Revised 07/25/2016 Description missing no more than two elements. • What concepts have been studied? • What methods have been used? Description missing three or more elements. • What concepts have been studied? • What methods have been used? 5 NR449 Evidence Based Practice • Who are the participants or members of the samples? • What instruments have been used? Did the authors describe the reliability and validity? • How do you answer your original “the purpose of this paper” question? Do the findings of the articles provide evidence for your answers? If so, how? If not, what is still needed to be able to answer your question? • What is needed for the next step? Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. • Who are the participants or members of the samples? • What instruments have been used? Did the authors describe the reliability and validity? • How do you answer your original “the purpose of this paper” question? Do the findings of the articles provide evidence for your answers? If so, how? If not, what is still needed to be able to answer your question? • What is needed for the next step? Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. • Who are the participants or members of the samples? • What instruments have been used? Did the authors describe the reliability and validity? • How do you answer your original “the purpose of this paper” question? Do the findings of the articles provide evidence for your answers? If so, how? If not, what is still needed to be able to answer your question? • What is needed for the next step? Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. • Who are the participants or members of the samples? • What instruments have been used? Did the authors describe the reliability and validity? • How do you answer your original “the purpose of this paper” question? Do the findings of the articles provide evidence for your answers? If so, how? If not, what is still needed to be able to answer your question? • What is needed for the next step? Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs) 51–55 points 46–50 points 0–45 points 56–60 points NR449 RUA Analyzing Published Research.docx Revised 07/25/2016 6 NR449 Evidence Based Practice Description of Findings: Conclusion (20 points) Summary paragraph includes ALL major findings from article. • Independently extracts complex data from a variety of quantitative sources, presents those data in summary form, makes appropriate connections and inferences consistent with the data, and relates them to a larger context. • Recognizes points of view and value assumptions in formulating interpretation of data collected and articulates the point of view in a given situation. • Identifies misrepresentations in the presentation points of quantitative data and the logical and empirical fallacies in inferences drawn from data. 19-20 points NR449 RUA Analyzing Published Research.docx Summary paragraph omits ONE major finding from article. Summary paragraph omits TWO major findings from article. • Independently extracts complex data from a variety of quantitative sources, presents those data in summary form, makes appropriate connections and inferences consistent with the data, and • Independently extracts complex data from a variety of quantitative sources, presents those data in summary form, makes appropriate connections and inferences consistent with the data, and relates them to a larger context. • Recognizes points of view and value assumptions in formulating interpretation of data collected and articulates the point of view in a given situation. • Identifies misrepresentations in the presentation of quantitative data and the logical and empirical fallacies in inferences drawn from data. relates them to a larger context. • Recognizes points of view and value assumptions in formulating interpretation of data collected and articulates the point of view in a given situation. • Identifies misrepresentations in the presentation of quantitative data and the logical and empirical fallacies in inferences drawn from data. 17-18 points Revised 07/25/2016 16 points Summary paragraph omits THREE or MORE major findings from article. • Independently extracts complex data from a variety of quantitative sources, presents those data in summary form, makes appropriate connections and inferences consistent with the data, and relates them to a larger context. • Recognizes points of view and value assumptions in formulating interpretation of data collected and articulates the point of view in a given situation. • Identifies misrepresentations in the presentation of quantitative data and the logical and empirical fallacies in inferences drawn from data. 0-15 points 7 NR449 Evidence Based Practice Grammar, Spelling, Mechanics, and APA Format (30 points) • Length pages. is three full • Used appropriate APA format and is free of errors. • Includes ALL headings and subheadings as instructed. • Grammar, spelling, and mechanics are free of errors. 28–30 points • Length is no more than one quarter page under or over. • Used appropriate APA format, with one type of error. • Includes ALL headings and subheadings as instructed. • Grammar, spelling, and mechanics have one type of error. 26–27 points • Length is no more than one half page under or over. • Used appropriate APA format, with two types of errors. • Includes ALL headings and subheadings as instructed. • Grammar, spelling, and mechanics have two types of errors. 23–25 points • Length is three quarters of a page or more under or over. • Attempts made to use APA format; three or more types of errors are present. • Includes ALL headings and subheadings as instructed. • Grammar, spelling, and mechanics have three or more types of errors. 0–22 points Total Points Possible = 200 points NR449 RUA Analyzing Published Research.docx Revised 07/25/2016 8 Chamberlain College of Nursing NR449 Evidence-Based Practice EVIDENCE MATRIX TABLE Article Reference 1 (sample not a real article) Smith, Lewis (2013), What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112. Purpose Hypothesis Study Question Variables Independent(I) Dependent(D) How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes? D-Dietary modifications I-Education Study Design Qualitative Sample Size and Selection N- 18 Convenience sampleselected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PA Data Collection Methods Focus Groups Major Findings Support and education improved compliance with dietary modifications. Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs) 1 2 3 4 5 NR449 Evidence Matric Table.docx Revised10/20/14 ns/cs 1 Running Head: HEALTHCARE ACQUIRED INFECTIONS RUA RUA: Topic for Research: Healthcare Acquired Infections Chamberlain College of Nursing NR 449: Evidence-Based Practice July 2019 1 HEALTHCARE ACQUIRED INFECTIONS RUA Health care Acquired Infections Describing the Problem Health care-acquired infections (HCAIs) are usually caused by bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, and the most common are the bloodstream infection that includes urinary tract infection, surgical site infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. This kind of infection occurs to a patient that is admitted in the hospital but did not have the signs or the symptoms of the infection before the admission time. The patients infected by the healthcareacquired infection tend to append more time in the hospital due to the treatments that they require for the infection, and this affects their productivity as they are kept in the hospitals (Arini, 2016). The families that lose their loved ones due to the infection go through emotional torture as well as being affected financially. Hospitals also spend a lot of money every year to buy medicines that can treat the infection being that it is antibiotic resistance. HCIAs could be avoided by mindfulness of health care providers especially practicing proper handwashing before and after patient care. Significance of the Problem Hospital-acquired infections are also known as the nosocomial infections, and they affect about five percent of all the patients admitted in hospitals, the patients can always come to contact with these infections through different means for instance when the patients come in contact with the skin of other infected patients or the medical personnel, they can be acquired during the surgeries or contact with terminated surfaces of the hospital or equipment such as needles. There exist various microorganisms that can cause nosocomial infection and they include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, 2 HEALTHCARE ACQUIRED INFECTIONS RUA Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Fernando, Gray, & Gottlieb, (2017) states that through the research done by the CDC, it was confirmed that the leading cause of the nosocomial infection is the bacterial agents. Also, according to the report of the World Health Organization, healthcare-acquired infections are most adverse in the world because they affect hundreds of millions of patients annually and it also leads to high rates of mortality as well as draining the healthcare facilities financially. The most common type of the nosocomial infection found in the hospitals in the urinary tract infection and this is mostly caused by the process of catheterization and it has been proven that most of the infections occur to patients in the Intensive Care Unit of the hospital because research shows that more than 20% of all the patients in the intensive care unit develop the infection. Almost all of these infections are bacterial infections and can be treated with antibiotics, but they have formed some resistance to the antibiotics (Fernando, Gray, & Gottlieb, 2017). Even though some of the patients overcome this through treatment, there are those patients who succumb to the infection, and others are left disabled if the infection is not treated well. Discussion: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HCAIs) The PICOT Question Developing the PICOT question demands that the analysis of methods that can be used to reduce the hospital-acquired infection, and this majorly revolves around the hand hygiene of both the patients and the medical staff. Hence the PICOT question: For admitted hospital patients, does the healthcare providers’ use of proper hand hygiene reduce the risk of HCAI’s compared with the use of improper hand hygiene during the patient’s hospital stay? Breakdown of the PICOT Question 3 HEALTHCARE ACQUIRED INFECTIONS RUA P I Patient/ Population Healthcare acquired infection among the inpatient. Intervention / Indicator Adopting the hand washing practice to reduce the rate of the Infection. C O T Compare/ Control Outcome Time -The use of the different types of hand sanitizer to identify the most effective in the hospitals for example alcoholbased sanitizer. -Not washing hands. -Improper use of gloves. Purpose of the Paper To reduce the hospital acquired infections. During hospital stay. The sole purpose of this paper is to identify how the healthcare-acquired infections affect the inpatients as evidenced by the poor hand hygiene performed by healthcare providers. Levels of Evidence The created PICOT question is an example of a prognosis question. This is because the question examines how the practice of proper hand hygiene can, in fact, lead to the decrease in Healthcare Acquired Infections. For research, I decided that the best research method is a mix of both quantitative and qualitative research as qualitative research deals with obtaining information from the patient’s own perspective while quantitative research presents statistics that is reality oriented and can be observed and measured. This mixed method of research combines both quantitative research and qualitative research and can be utilized to answer research questions to provide a broader view and utilize more than one approach. The results from each method may authenticate each other each and deliver stronger evidence for the research. Mixed method incorporates the description of the measurable state of an experience/idea and how a person subjectively replies to it. (Houser, 2018). Search Strategy 4 HEALTHCARE ACQUIRED INFECTIONS RUA When conducting my research on how proper or improper hand hygiene can prevent or cause HCAIs, I used search teams like Healthcare Acquired Infections, Causes of HCAIs, Prevention of HCAIs, Outcomes for HCAIs, and Proper Hand Hygiene. The search database that I used was Google Scholar in addition to Chamberlain Library Database. I found several relevant articles to link with the PICOT question that I found especially useful to prove my point as to why hand hygiene is so crucial in preventing HCAIs. As I did my search, I decided to narrow my search by choosing articles that were current, relevant to my topic, and that offered in-depth research to support my question. Ensuring my articles were no older than 5 years and that they were peer-reviewed were the only limits that were employed. Of the articles I selected two of the most relevant and helpful were “The Effect of Infection Control Nurses on the Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Healthcare-Acquired Infection and Multidrug-Resistant Strains in Critically-Ill Children” and “A Review of Designing New Vaccines to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Antibiotic-Resistant Infections.” These two articles were selected because they provided detailed support of the PICOT question. The first article explained that research done by CDC and WHO showed clearly that patients are at a high risk of becoming infected while receiving treatment in hospitals and the most alarming issue is that most of the patients affected are from the Intensive Care Unit (Abedini, 2018). It further stated that through research done by … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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