Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper

Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper Attached you will find the articles and the requirement from the professor. Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper Topic: Confirmation of Hearing Loss in Infants Referred From UNHS Methods available, recommendations and current challenges -analysts of economic and cultural issues. I need help on: 1.Abstract/Summary (250 words max) 2.Introduction/Background –”Serves the table” Present the topic contextualize, gives the reader necessary background information to understand the main points to be discussed and possible contributions 3.Aims, Objectives : What is your research project about ? The objectives of the work should be explicit either at the end of the introduction/background section or in a separate page with subtitle. professor_guidelinesresearch_paper_students_use__1_.pptx article_4___mother_s_attitude_towards_hearing_screening.pdf.pdf article_2___past_present_and_future_of_h._assessment.pdf.pdf article_3___guidelines_and_laws.pdf.pdf article_1___assessment_of_at_risk_children.pdf.pdf Writing a Research Report M . Perez Abalo PhD Professor Recommendations for students use only 3/31/2020 1 The research paper/project • Must have all sections identified and correctly labeled – Title page /authors affiliation – Abstract (separate page) – Introduction/ Background – Main Body : Varies if its an experimental paper , a clinical case description or a review of a topic – Discussion/Conclusions – List of Reference in APA format 3/31/2020 2 Structure of the Research Project 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 3/31/2020 Initial Page : Title and author/r and affiliation/s Abstract/Summary (250 words max) Introduction/Background –”Serves the table” Present the topic contextualize, gives the reader necessary background information to understand the main points to be discussed and possible contributions Aims, Objectives : What is your research project about ? The objectives of the work should be explicit either at the end of the introduction/background section or in a separate page with subtitle Main body–This section varies for each type of RP-see next Discussion/conclusion : The final interpretation of the results/topic described in the project , main contributions, possible limitations, and directions for future research Also the final take away message or concluding comments re the topic being reviewed as well as the author/student interpretation Reference list in APA format and in text citations (see more details in the corresponding section/slides) 3 Specs /Format • All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. • In each section give the details, information and data corresponding to that section (see following specs &guidelines). • Pages should be numbered (Maximum 10 Minimum 5-not including the title page ). • Use separate pages for the Title, Abstract and the References list (APA format). 3/31/2020 4 Tips for the Abstract • Summary (Words 120-150) in a paragraph, block formatted • Provides an overview of the whole article (it’s a summary :only the essence) • Use one or two brief sentences with the introduction/ background , • Emphasize on the objective or aims of the present project • Give some important details of the methods and the main results and a brief conclusion or final comments on the contribution 3/31/2020 5 Introduction/Background Section • General overview of literature ( 2-3 pages) in relation to the RP main topic • “Serves the table” or creates the context to understand the importance , originality/scientific value of the “research study/studies being reviewed by the student or the clinical case to be discussed/described” • Includes in text citations (in APA format and style) to fundament the introduction Use the name and year of each publication or study cited and be sure to include the complete reference information in APA format at the end (Reference List) • Briefly summarize what has been already investigated/the existing evidence on this particular topic and what would be the specific contribution or clarification of the present study • Finish the introduction with the specific research questions and expectations of the project (study aim/s or objective/s) of the work) 3/31/2020 6 Main Body: Clinical Case • Describe here all info relevant to the patient history, symptoms and signs , as well as test results /labs – • Discuss the diagnosis of the patient and the differential diagnosis in reference to related cases or syndromes • Include intervention treatments received or planned Rehabilitation & Prognosis • You may use subtitles/headings to separate different sections in the main body of the project and the different aspects to be considered 3/31/2020 7 Experimental Paper • • • • • • • 3/31/2020 Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Reference List 8 Method Section: HOW? • Give details (summarized) of the methods in the study or studies reviewed such as sample sizes characterization of participants; research design and procedures used • If there are several experiments organize accordingly the section (subtitles or headings) to account for each of these. Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper • In case your work is a theoretical analysis you may explain in this section the methodology used for the Literature review, the selection criteria and sources of information, the data bases searched and/or number of papers investigated etc. 3/31/2020 9 Results Section • Provide a through description of the main findings in the study or studies reviewed by the student which are the focus of your paper • For a better understanding of the main findings of your research paper use “your own versions of tables and/or figures” to summarize the results-do NOT copy paste fro the published articles reviewed • Each table or figure must have the sources for the data correctly cited to avoid misrepresentation • Provide a written description and reference in the text for each table and/or figure (numbered sequentially) • Words like “ note” or “observe” may be used in the corresponding narrative in the results /methods section to emphasize key points in each of these tables and figures 3/31/2020 10 Results : Tables and figures • Tables and/or figures should be used by the student to summarize the data of the articles reviewed • The use of tables &/or figures is strongly recommended in the results section • Tables and/or figures should be made by the student (Do not copy and paste from the published articles or references materials that you are summarizing) • The specific findings or results must be directly shown and not only mentioned in the text • The sources for the information should be cited at the bottom of the table or figure or in each row of a table if it comprises or summarizes several sources. • Tables and figures should be numbered sequentially in the research paper with a legend under each. 3/31/2020 11 More on Tables & Figures • Each table /figure need a narrative in the corresponding results section to walk the reader through the key points of that table / graph. • The narrative or comments in the corresponding section will make reference to the table number and describe /explain what should be noted in that table or figure without repeating the actual results. 3/31/2020 12 Discussion/Conclusion Section • Summary of the main findings reviewed by the student with an interpretation of these results • Compare the findings reported in this project with other related findings/research already published : – Are your findings in agreement/ support/expand previous research/knowledge in the fields? Which of these findings are original new/novelty – If there is some discrepancy in the present results with previous findings explain possible reasons (methodological differences, study sample, design) • Emphasize the specific contributions /originality of this research paper • You may also indicate what aspects remain for future research and how should they be addressed. 3/31/2020 13 Conclusions (1 paragraph) • This final section provides the student/s final conclusions of the study/s contribution in the context on what was already evidenced/known for the particular subject investigated • In what way the study advanced science?, expand previous knowledge?/ replicate findings? • The conclusion will not enumerate the different results but will integrate /interpret all the results in the context of the body of research already published in this topic • Use terminology such as this study demonstrates , …provides new evidence on ….expands previous knowledge 3/31/2020 14 References • References (APA style) must be cited correctly and consistently (use the same format throughout the text) Include in the references only published research articles/books chapters in the web of science • Note that there is a specific way (and rules) to cite in the paper and another more detailed in the references list at the end • The list must include not only the paper/s reviewed by the student which is object of this exercise but also all those that are cited in the introduction & the discussion section (related research in the topic) as well as the instruments or scales (if applicable) in the methods section 3/31/2020 15 References (cont). Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper] • All papers or research data reviewed or used by the student (including tables and/or figures) need to be correctly cited in the text to avoid Misrepresentation of research results • In the reference section at the end of your paper please give all necessary information including authors research title , journal or book, volume pages and year (see APA guidelines) • The list of references at the end must include all references in the text with a one to one correspondence 3/31/2020 16 Reference Citations in Text APA style – in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs for example in the introduction, methods and discussion – The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point Ex….from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945) ; …as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998) – When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs Ex Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found…… – In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”) and the year of publication. 3/31/2020 17 Reference list in APA style • References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. – – – – – – – – – 3/31/2020 Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors’ last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list. Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word “and” when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M. Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title. Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books. Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a “hanging indent”. Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals. Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online. Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from. Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article, include the date that you retrieved the information. 18 Reference List Examples References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers. 1. Journal article, one author : Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. 2. Journal article, two authors Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 286-295. 3. Journal article, more than two authors, accessed online Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63(3), 182-196. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.182 4. Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper Article from an Internet-only journal Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle 5. Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI) Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79. Retrieved from Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com 6. Books References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. Ex Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 3/31/2020 19 Abbreviations • According to APA abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience • Abbreviations should be limited to instances when a) the abbreviation is standard and will not interfere with the reader’s understanding and b) if space and repetition can be greatly avoided through abbreviation. • When abbreviating a term, use the full term the first time you use it, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses • Avoid use abbreviations in the title except when are clearly defined first 3/31/2020 20 References final comments • All research papers must include at least 5-8 references of articles published in recognized scientific journals from the WEB of Science or text books –(in the later case cite the chapter and page utilized) in APA format • Although specific References from the web are allowed the internet address need to be cited as follows “ Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. • If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work. • The paper must be written in clear English , use short sentences direct ideas and following a clear rationale 3/31/2020 21 RESEARCH ARTICLE Mapping the content of mothers’ knowledge, attitude and practice towards universal newborn hearing screening for development of a KAP survey tool Christine Graham ID1*, Janet Seeley2, Ayanda Gina3, Yougan Saman1,4 1 Nelson Mandela School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2 Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, 3 Department of Audiology, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa, 4 Ear Nose and Throat Department, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Graham C, Seeley J, Gina A, Saman Y (2019) Mapping the content of mothers’ knowledge, attitude and practice towards universal newborn hearing screening for development of a KAP survey tool. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0210764. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210764 Editor: Matthew Lee Bush, University of Kentucky, UNITED STATES Received: September 24, 2018 Accepted: January 1, 2019 Published: February 20, 2019 Copyright: © 2019 Graham et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability Statement: All relevant data within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * cgtinagrm333@gmail.com Abstract Understanding mother’s knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) is essential for the success of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) as poor compliance and follow-up remains a global challenge. To determine content area for a questionnaire that measures PCHI-related KAP in rural mothers, we trained moderators who interviewed 145 pregnant women (17 groups) from 5 ante-natal clinics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, summarised and analysed using thematic framework analysis. Discussion: Hearing Loss in Infants Research Paper Four knowledge themes were identified: 1) PCHI was perceived as the malfunction of hearing leading to disability; 2) a poorly-responsive/communicative child may have PCHI; 3) lifestyle, hereditary and environmental factors are significant causes of PCHI; 4) medical management of PCHI was doubted, with some advocating birth and ancestral rituals. Two themes were identified for attitude: 1) beliefs that PCHI was emotionalised due to the negative lifelong impact on the child and family; 2) UNHS processes were favourable though some preferred other belief systems. Three themes were identified for practice: 1) doctors were the first choice followed by traditional healers; 2) willingness to continue followup although challenges exist; 3) minimal family support during consultation. The contextualised KAP of women regarding UNHS processes and PCHI provided content area for the design of a KAP tool. Introduction Permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) is a significant cause of disability and can have an enduring impact on cognitive, emotional and social development particularly with regards to the functional limitations of speech and language acquisition [1]. Hearing loss may be present at birth and can result from environmental and prenatal factors, congenital infections and genetic causes [2]. Hypoxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, chronic otitis media, PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210764 February 20, 2019 1 / 20 Content area of mothers’ KAP towards UNHS for development of a tool mumps, measles, cytomegalovirus, trauma, ototoxic drugs and head injury are causes of neonatal and childhood hearing loss [3]. The reported prevalence of disabling hearing loss varies globally as it depends on context. In a well- resourced country such as the United States the estimates are 1.83/1000 newborns rising to 2.7/1000 before the age of five years and 3.5/1000 during adolescence [4]. In sub-Saharan Africa disabling hearing loss is estimated at 1.9% which translates to 19 children per 1000 [5]. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has become the standard of care in many countries. In the United States and the United Kingdom there are established programmes where almost all babies are screened shortly after birth. Early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) attempts to lessens the impact on the family and the child as UNHS services aim to be accessible, coordinated and culturally sensitive to support the child, family and community [6]. However, diagnostic follow-up and effective compliance for intervention may be more difficult to achieve as it requires the pragmatic partnership between the health service and families and even in well-resourced settings this remains a challenge [7]. The cost-effectiveness of such programmes however is increasingly becoming evident as we mitigate against the effects of a lifetime of disability. However, in poorly resource … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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