Discussion: Leadership Competencies

Discussion: Leadership Competencies ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Leadership Competencies I don’t know how to handle this Management question and need guidance. Discussion: Leadership Competencies Review the document, ACHE Healthcare Executive 2019 Competencies Assessment Tool (Wk4.3 file attached) Assess whether you meet the ACHE leadership competencies. Then, recommend at least three strategies to better meet competencies by building on your strengths and improving your weaknesses. Defend your recommendations. Support your response by identifying and explaining key points and/or examples presented in the Learning Resources. wk4.2.pdf wk4.3.pdf wk4.4.pdf wk4.1.pdf IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL Temmuz-A?ustos-Eylül 2014 Say?: 15 Cilt: 5 Yaz Dönemi July-August-September 2014 Issue: 15 Volume: 5 Summer Term Jel:I18 www.iibdergisi.com ID:398 – K:417 THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP IN HEALTHCARE MANAGEMENT Fatih BUDAK1, Ahmet KAR1 Hacettepe University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Healthcare Management 1 Abstract: Healthcare Sector which has a complicated system even in the simplest term is getting more complicated through handling it in a national level and in a worldwide dimension. At this point, it is getting harder to manage this complication in a managerial sense. With the developments in international dimension, healthcare management sector which is no more an ordinary service sector cannot stand idle by these developments and day by day it has gained a more professional structure. Terms such as patient rights, quality, internal and external customer satisfaction, strategic management and leadership have been in the focal point of modern-day healthcare management, and health institutions which keep up with the times need professional managers which are competent in work and have features of strategic management and leadership. Key Words: Healthcare Management, Strategic Management, Strategic Leadership 1. INTRODUCTION Serious troubles have caused in terms of management in health sector because of extreme workload in healthcare, over competition in health sector, lack of available staff who has different qualifications from each other but works within the scope of mutual attachment; the necessity of following up developing technology in this sector in order to give more qualified service and –above all- the fact that all services done are related to human health. For this reason, providing services in health institutions working in an utmost complicated system continuously can only be possible with both managing strategically health institutions in an effective way and team-work in which the managers of institution will create in focus strategic leadership qualifications. Objective: The objective of the study is to find out the necessity that health institutions which are at the focal point of individual and social development should be managed by managers having strategic leadership qualifications, and to bring forward solution proposals about this issue. Scope: National and international literature studies, conducted within the scope of strategic management and leadership about the management of health institutions create the scope of this article, and the analysis of academic information related to 155 IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL Temmuz-A?ustos-Eylül 2014 Say?: 15 Cilt: 5 Yaz Dönemi July-August-September 2014 Issue: 15 Volume: 5 Summer Term Jel:I18 www.iibdergisi.com ID:398 – K:417 the subject in this scope has been presented to readers. concerned with the management of works which can make possible for the business to continue its operations in the long term and can provide the business with a competitive advantage and much return than average profit. On the other hand, the term ‘leadership’ is described as a concept which existed since human beings have lived together and whose beginning goes back a long way in terms of historical process (Bakan, 2008). For this very reason, the answers to the questions – ‘What is leadership?’ and ‘What are the kinds of leadership? – are at least as many as the number of people asking these questions (Stogdill, 1974). Discussion: Leadership Competencies Further to this, there are still lots of unknown things about leadership although thousands of studies conducted about leadership give important information about what leadership is or not. (Ivancevich ve Matteson, 2002). Method: Literature review was made and information acquired by probing scientific works related to the issue was analyzed and interpreted from the point of scientific view. Research Questions: The research tries to answer these two questions: What is the significance level of common strategic management and private strategic leadership concepts for managers of health institutions in the healthcare system of Turkey which is a sub-sector of international healthcare sector in modern world, and international health system? What are the systemic and scientific works conducted about this issue and what should be done? Theoretical Framework and Limitations: Management, Strategic Management, Leader and Strategic Leadership concepts were primarily discussed in the study, and then Strategic Leadership Concept was studied in details. In part four, studies conducted about the importance of Strategic Leadership in Healthcare Management were presented through analysis. In the conclusion part, suggestions, solution proposals were presented for national and international health system focusing on healthcare management. Healthcare sector has been in a period of change devoted to improvement in both our country, other developed and developing world-countries. In particular the rise of expectation for competition in this sector and for health quality has revived the issue of autonomizing and discommoning even public hospitals in our country, and autonomy in terms of managerial was provided to public hospitals by founding Association of Public Hospitals with the statutory decree about the organization and functions of the Ministry of Health and subsidiaries on 11 October 2011. These works show that strategic management and leadership concept are indispensable factors of specially healthcare management. Because it is known that leader behaviors of managers in charge of health institutions, which provide people with job and where people endeavor too much, have clear influence on job satisfaction 2. CONCEPTS According to Ülgen and Mirze (2010), strategic management is a term which expresses a more clear expansion of business management due to the intra-word ‘management’. However, strategic management is not concerned with the management of daily and ordinary works of business, but 156 IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL Temmuz-A?ustos-Eylül 2014 Say?: 15 Cilt: 5 Yaz Dönemi July-August-September 2014 Issue: 15 Volume: 5 Summer Term Jel:I18 www.iibdergisi.com ID:398 – K:417 of workers and on organizational commitment (Gülda?, 2009). 2.1. Manager Concept According to Koçel (2011) we can describe ‘Management’ as an occupation and ‘Manager’ as the person who does it. In other words, it is an occupation of reaching their goals of business units by using fund of accrued knowledge in management domain, working with others and transacting business via these. If we define ‘manager’ concept according to open system and contingency approaches, manager is a person whoever gathers factors of material and humane production canorously in order to achieve certain objectives in period of time and under variable ambient conditions (Eren, 2011). Operations done in an organization can be big or small. There are managerial levels from the bottom level (operational level) to the upper level (strategic planning level) in business firm. Thereby, managers are not the ones who just conduct important and big works. Hence, managers at each level, including human beings are responsible for making the business achieve needed and intended goals by utilizing available sources efficiently and productively (Ülgen ve Mirze, 2010). Based on these definitions we can say that manager is a basic humanistic element who neatly implements operations (at the same time who also takes responsibility) towards organizational goals by applying available rules thanks to the authorization given to him or her legally (Güney, 2007). Discussion: Leadership Competencies According to Ülker (1997), the qualifications which a manager should have are listed as follows: The manager is; • who manages • who maintains order • who is a protector • who is system and organizastion-centered • who is prone to control • who has tunnel vision • who cares about ‘how and when’ questions • who has vision about sub-managerial stages • who is prone to accept available situations • who transacts in compliance with permanent norms • who does his job systematically 2.2. Leader Concept One of the basic concepts of post-modern and contemporary approaches is ‘leader concept’. The concepts such as organizational overcast structure, applications of empowerment, organization within teamwork (group) and acquired authority brought ‘leader concept’ to forefront instead of ‘manager’ who uses formal authority virtually based on the position (Koçel, 2011). The word ‘leadership’ frequently used in the last two centuries took part in world literature in 14th century (Stogdill, 1974). Although lots of studies have been conducted about leadership and especially leader concept, they are the concepts which mankind barely build consensus about their definition and content (Ergen, 2011). For this reason, researchers’ definitions of the leader by considering different variances through their personal point of view and interests caused lots of definitions in literature. 157 IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL Temmuz-A?ustos-Eylül 2014 Say?: 15 Cilt: 5 Yaz Dönemi July-August-September 2014 Issue: 15 Volume: 5 Summer Term Jel:I18 www.iibdergisi.com ID:398 – K:417 Leader is defined in three different meanings in the dictionary of Turkish Language Association. The first meaning is pioneer, commander; the second meaning is someone who is in charge of top management of a party or institution; and the third one is a team or person who takes the lead in a contest (TLA, 2014). According to Koçel (2011), leader is the one who motivates others to behave in accordance with certain goals and influence them. In another word, leader is the one who a group of people follow in order to achieve their personal and group objective, and whose desire, command and instructions lead those people. According to Barl? (2010), the qualifications and features a leader should have are sorted below: • Being humble and tolerant • Not repeating mistakes and learning from experiences • Making the right decisions • Being neat in private life and respectful 2.3. The Differences between Manager and Leader The concepts of manager and leader are two important concepts of management domain which are muddled up with each other, are used interchangeably, but not the same as each other. According to Kotter (1999) management and leadership are a system of two separate and component actions. Each of them has distinctive function and characteristic engagements. In today’s competitive and active business climate both of them are necessary for success. • Being charismatic • Having vision and mission • Being strong in all respects Management is related to an organization’s continuation and its hierarchical structure, and within the scope of this concept it fulfills functions such as planning, organizing, coordinating, orientating-guiding and controlling. On the other hand, leadership is related to getting into the act and acceleration of change (Drafke and Kossen, 1998). • Being enterprising, innovator and creative • Being ambitious and spirited • Being able to communicate effectively • Being positive • Being faithful While leaders are the ones who are pioneers of big plans and have ideas, managers are the ones who apply these plans. In another word, manager is the one who carries out the vision of a leader (Ülgen and Mirze, 2010). • Having the ability of rhetoric and persuasionDiscussion: Leadership Competencies • Trusting and being reliable • Having general knowledge • Being brave, patient and calm Kotter (1999) points out that management is to cope with complexity, and leadership is to adopt • Being determined and consistent 158 IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL Temmuz-A?ustos-Eylül 2014 Say?: 15 Cilt: 5 Yaz Dönemi July-August-September 2014 Issue: 15 Volume: 5 Summer Term Jel:I18 www.iibdergisi.com ID:398 – K:417 a personal and effective attitude which is goaloriented while linking leadership with handling the change and stating that managers are nonpersonal and passive about goals. The differences between manager and leader can be summarized as seen in the table below when literature search is done about the issue (Gülda?, 2009). According to Yukl (1989), one person can be a leader without being a manager and one person who is not a manager can be a leader, too. Table 1. Differences Between Leader And Manager The manager applies The leader innovates. The manager maintains continuity The leader develops. The manager is based on regularity. The leader is based on persons. The manager relies on supervision. The leader relies on persons. The manager does the works right. The leader does the right works. The manager preserves. The leader develops. The manager imitates. The leader brings the new out. The manager asks ‘how’ and ‘when’ questions. The leaders asks ‘what’ and ‘why’ questions. The manager tends to adopt non-personal managerial goals. The leader tends to adopt persons and active situations. The manager uses his works as integration process of human and material sources. The leader improves people’ ideas about possibility and necessity. The manager uses tactics such as agreement, punishment or rewarding. The leader reveals new moral values and creates special desire and goals via commands the leader gives. The manager acts through incentives to protect what exists, and stays away from taking risk. The leader prefers to create ambition at work, and keep opportunities and awards at high level. Reference: Gülda?, 2009 3. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP The word ‘strategy’ etymologically comprises of the combination of two old Greek words as root and prefix. It derived from the word ‘stratos’ which means a spread army or a large community, and the suffix ‘egy’ in this word means ‘direct’ (Adair, 2002). According to Turkish Language Association (2014), the word ‘strategy’ whose meaning is ‘izlem’ in Turkish came from French into Turkish and has been used in social sciences since 1970s. In the dictionary of Turkish Language Association (2014), the word ‘strategy’ means the science and art of using politic, economic, psychological and military powers concomitantly for the purpose of supporting policies adopted of a nation or a community of nations in peace and war time. At the same time, the word strategy which has been 159 IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL Temmuz-A?ustos-Eylül 2014 Say?: 15 Cilt: 5 Yaz Dönemi July-August-September 2014 Issue: 15 Volume: 5 Summer Term Jel:I18 www.iibdergisi.com ID:398 – K:417 used as a military term for centuries is defined in Webster’s New International Dictionary (2014) as follows: the science and art of military command exercised to meet the enemy in combat under advantageous conditions. organization at the same time are needed (Industrial College of the Armed Force, 2002). Strategic leadership which is one of the important components of strategic management process is defined as abilities of divination, creating vision, providing flexibility, thinking strategically and working with others in order to initiate changes which will provide a feasible future for organization (U?uro?lu and Çelik, 2009). According to all these definitions, strategy comprehends precautions and regulations taken to achieve objectives in general. In this context, strategy can be interpreted as the way which all organizations will follow in order to maintain its existence and increase efficiency (Güçlü, 2003). Ireland and Hitt (2005) define strategic leadership as a person’s ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization. On the other hand, Rowe (2001) defines strategic leadership as the ability to influence other to voluntarily make day-to-day decisions that enhance the long term viability of the organization while at the same time maintaining its short term financial stability. The basic duty of a leader is to create strategies in order to carry out the mission or basic goal of business by specifying them. Discussion: Leadership Competencies The strategic, an important factor in succeeding in fulfilling strategies, is the person who can make strategic changes via his abilities of vision, anticipation, being flexible and impowering other followers (Ülgen ve Mirze, 2010). In general terms strategic leadership is concerned with all people taking on all responsibility of organization ; it is also concerned with people such as top executives, dominant coalitions inside the organization, board members and general managers of departments (Boal and Hooijberg, 200; Hitt et al., 2007). In order to understand the concept of strategic leadership better, the differences between it and leadership should be presented clearly. The duties laid on the leadership concept differ according to available hierarchal levels in especially big organizations. For instance, strategic leadership dominates in the top levels of organization, organizational leadership dominates in the medium levels, and apprehension of leadership focusing on production and action dominates in the bottom levels of organization. In this dispersion leaders in the top level are responsible for determining strategic tendency and vision of organization within the scope of global strategic environment. Not only analytical thinking is needed for leaders in this strategic level, but also creative thinking manners to develop the vision and mission of 3.1. The Emergence of Strategic Leadership When situations which businesses faced in 1960s and 1970s are considered as the key determinant of managerial behaviors and organizational outcomes, the studies about leadership have shown a change from managerial leadership studies to strategic leadership studies since the middle of 1980s; and hence, it has shown a change towards top 160 IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL Temmuz-A?ustos-Eylül 2014 Say?: 15 Cilt: 5 Yaz Dönemi July-August-September 2014 Issue: 15 Volume: 5 Summer Term Jel:I18 www.iibdergisi.com ID:398 – K:417 executives (Ireland and Hitt, 2005; Yukl, 2002). The first marks of this change can be seen in Upper Echelon Theory by Hambrick and mason (1984). Thereby, the theory of strategic leadership derived from upper echelon theory and developed (Vera and Crossan, 2004). Strategic leadership theory considered organizations as a reflection of specially CEOs (Chief Executive Officer) and many CEOs accepted strategic leadership responsibilities on their own. The basic duty of CEOs as the strategic leaders of organizations is to choose a vision for their organizations and to provide necessary conditions to be able to reach this vision. In particular when these choices end up with success, strategic leaders in the key position are declared as ‘hero’ in companies they work for (U?urluoglu, 2009). In 21st century global and big rivals took the place of local and small rivals on the basis of companies with the influence of globalization; sense of competition changed. And hence, strategic leadership’s perception and practices changed by being out of control of only one person about the issue of determining the future plan and vision of organization. In table 2, as a statement of these changes, the strategic leadership practices of 20th and 21st centuries can be seen (Ireland and Hitt, 2005; U?urluoglu, 2009). Table 2. Strategic Leadership Practices 20th Century Practices 21st Century Practices Outcome focused Outcome and process focused Stoic and confident Confident, but without hubris Sought to acquire knowledge Seeks … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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