Discussion: The Health Communication Cycle

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Discussion: The Health Communication Cycle

Discussion: The Health Communication Cycle

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Discussion: The Health Communication Cycle
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Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2007 and 2013. All rights reserved.

There is No Shortage of Health Communication Planning Models and Frameworks

  • Communication for Development (C4D) – UNICEF and other U.N. agencies
  • WHO IMC/Communication for Behavioral Impact (COMBI)
  • P-Process (Johns Hopkins University)
  • Health Communication CDCynergy (CDC)
  • Communication for Social Change – CFSC
  • NCI Health Communication Planning Guide (Pink Book)
  • Many, many others

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013 © Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

Yet, even when/if the number of stages or language of different communication planning models may differ, basic principles of health communication planning are or should be the same.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

Discussion: The Health Communication Cycle

Key Premises and Steps of the Health Communication Cycle

  • “Understand how health communication can contribute to the resolution of a health problem or advance the mission of a health organization.
  • Research the health communication environment and the key characteristics and needs of key groups and stakeholders via participatory and traditional research methods
  • Establish a multidisciplinary team, which includes community members, key stakeholders and/or their representatives
  • Determine the best approach and media channels to reach intended audiences and involve them in the communication and behavioral and social change processes.”

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013, p. 287-288. © Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

Discussion: The Health Communication Cycle

Key Premises and Steps of the Health Communication Cycle

  • “Develop communication messages, materials, and activities, as well as identify key communication channels and media, and seek input from intended audiences before launching any elements of your program
  • Implement the health communication program
  • Evaluate program effectiveness in relation to behavioral, social, organizational, or other key outcomes and parameters that were set in advance and agreed to by all team members and partners
  • Refine or validate program elements in agreement with lessons learned and evaluation analysis”
  • Encourage/seek participation of key groups and stakeholders throughout the process! Make sure it’s “their program”!

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013, p. 287-288. © Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

Communication Programs

Work Only If …

  • Well researched/evidence-based
  • Relevant to key groups/designed with their participation
  • Use adequate funds and human resources
  • Designed to be sustainable
  • Messages take into account key group’s readiness/cultural and personal attitudes, beliefs and behavior
  • Continue to be revisited on the basis of lessons learned

Discussion: The Health Communication Cycle

Group Discussion

  • In-class discussion on approaches to health communication planning (participatory versus expert-led):

List key features of both approaches

Discuss pros and cons

Participants’ examples from their personal or professional experience

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Planning and Strategy Development

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Setting Goals and Objectives

  • Consider data gathered for problem definition/ situation and audience analysis
  • Be reasonable/realistic
  • Define goals and objectives that are:
  • Achievable
  • Specific to key group(s) and stakeholders
  • Measurable (whenever possible)
  • Taking into account key priorities and steps towards social and behavioral change
  • Barrier removal approach
  • Address key social determinants of health

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Overall Program Goal

“Overall program goal: Describes the overall

“health improvement” (National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health, 2002, p. 22) or “overall change in a health or social problem” (Weinrich,1999, p. 67; 2011) that the program is seeking to achieve.”

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Program Goals Are Expressed in Terms of…

  • Morbidity
  • Mortality
  • Incidence
  • Prevalence
  • Quality of life

Outcome Objectives
Behavioral, Social and Organizational Objectives

  • Outcome objectives: The desired outcomes the health communication program is seeking to

achieve: behavioral, social, and organizational

objectives. These objectives are used as key

indicators of change in the evaluation of health

communication programs and should be set at the

onset of program planning.

  • The ultimate results of the health communication intervention

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Overall Program Goal

The goal of the program refers to the overall change in the health problem your program will strive to address.

The overall health improvement that an organization or agency strives to create.*

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*NIH/NCI

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Program Goals – Examples

  • Decrease HIV incidence rates in the intended population
  • Reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with asthma among children in US inner cities
  • Reduce the impact of women’s depression on family and work-related settings

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

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Connecting Overall Program Goal and Outcome Objectives

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

Credit line (HTML Code): © Julie Feinstein | Dreamstime.com

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Connecting Overall Program Goal and Outcome Objectives

Program Goal

  • Reduce the severity and mortality of asthma among children fifteen years and younger who live in inner cities in the United States

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Outcome Objectives

  • Behavioral Objectives – what key groups should do
  • Within 3 years from program launch, prompt XX % of parents or caretakers of asthmatic children in target neighborhoods to recognize early signs of an asthma attack and go immediately to the emergency room
  • Social Objectives – what kind of policy or social change the program seeks to achieve
  • Remove by the year 2020 existing health insurance barriers to adequate access to services and medications for asthmatic children in inner-cities
  • By the year 2015, increase social acceptance within XX percent of families and schools on the role of children as key agents of change in providing support and ideas for asthma prevention in their communities

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Outcome Objectives

  • Organizational Objectives – changes in an organization’s focus, structure, mission
  • Become a leading medical professional organization in pediatric asthma management by the year 2020 as recognized by XX percent of healthcare providers
  • Lead discovery and innovation in pediatric asthma management as measured by the number of published papers (at least XX percent of relevant literature published by 2020) and other forms of peer recognition

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Goal and Objectives – Key Questions

  • What is the overall goal of your program?
  • What are the key outcome objectives (behavioral, social and organizational)?

WHO will do WHAT by WHEN by HOW MUCH?

SMART objectives

  • What are the key communication objectives of your program?
  • Add as many as necessary/prioritize them
  • Select the most important ones (2-3 per audience)
  • WHO will do WHAT by WHEN by HOW MUCH?
  • SMART objectives
  • Communication objectives to be discussed in detail in future lessons

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Prioritizing Outcome Objectives

  • Identify those that better serve program’s goal(s)
  • Take into account level of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs of key groups; existing programs/resources/materials and lessons learned
  • Analyze existing barriers and supportive factors
  • Consider program timeframe, resources, etc.
  • Review and discuss information from situation and audience analysis
  • Make sure that they address specific needs and issues, and ultimately contribute to achieve the overall program goal
  • In collaboration with key groups and stakeholders, validate all objectives and make sure they are achievable within each specific group, community, or organization

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Examples of Health Communication Interventions ~ In- Class Discussion of Select Case Studies from Chapter 15 and 16

  • Mass-In-Motion
  • Calgary Communication Plan for Pandemic flu

See discussion questions within chapters 15 and 16 for each of these case studies.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.

*

For Discussion and Practice – In-Class Exercise

  • Luciana is a nineteen-year-old Italian woman who loves spending time at the beach and is unaware of the risk for skin cancer associated with prolonged sun exposure. (For additional detail on Luciana’s beliefs, behavior, and social context, see Box 2.1 in Chapter Two).
  • Apply core definitions in this chapter to the following tasks:
  • Establish a preliminary overall program goal for a health communication intervention to engage Luciana and her peers.
  • Identify key groups and stakeholders who should become engaged and provide input on health communication planning on this topic.
  • Develop measurable outcome objectives (behavioral, social, and organizational) for this program. For organizational objectives, think of a professional or consumer organizations that may have an interest in participating in a program on skin cancer prevention.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.

© Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.

*

Overview of the Health Communication Planning Process

This presentation is part of the instructor’s supplement for Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice. Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, an imprint of Wiley. The instructor’s supplement is stored within a password-protected webpage for instructors. Copyrights @2013 by Renata Schiavo. All rights reserved.

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. All rights reserved.

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