[SOLVED] Hypersensitivity reactions (HRs) are immune responses that are e
Hypersensitivity reactions (HRs) are immune responses that are exaggerated or inappropriate against an antigen or allergen that can produce inflammation, cell destruction or tissue injury.it has been classified in terms of time of exposure to an offending antigen and hypersensitivity occurrence (Hypersensitivity Reactions, 2015). Hypersensitivity reaction often occur as a result of allergies to food, environmental triggers, insect bite or drugs. often these patients have a history of allergic disease e.g. atopic dermatitis, urticarial, allergic rhinitis or asthma. Although most of them are self-limiting, they may adversely affect the quality of life and sometimes become life-threatening as well (BermeoOvalle, 2019).These patients may present with mild symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, itching and hives (Allergies Symptoms and causes, 2018) to life threatening reactions, such as anaphylaxis, severe transient maculopapular rash t, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) (BermeoOvalle, 2019) Hypersensitivity reactions have considerable impact on patients. Allergies to food result in dietary restrictions and constant fear of sudden allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis due to the unpredictability of onset. Persistent fear of adverse reactions interrupts ones social life leading to isolation and withdrawal, as parents and children are forced to skip events such as school functions, parties, and dining out due to fear of food allergies (Lange, 2014). Altered body image due to recurrence of hives, many also suffer from emotional and mental wellbeing such as anxiety, loss of normalcy leading to adjustments in decision making and daily routines (My Life With Food Allergy Report | AAFA.org, n.d.). Allergies Symptoms and causes. (2018). Retrieved May 2, 2019, from Mayo Clinic website: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/allergies/symptoms-causes/syc-20351497 BermeoOvalle, A. (2019). Making Rash Decisions in Epilepsy: Evaluating Hypersensitivity Reactions to Antiseizure Medications. Epilepsy Currents, 19(2), 9698. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535759719835672 Hypersensitivity Reactions. (2015, February 9). Retrieved August 2, 2020, from Clinical Gate website: https://clinicalgate.com/hypersensitivity-reactions/ My Life With Food Allergy Report | AAFA.org. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.aafa.org website: https://www.aafa.org/my-life-with-food-allergy-report.aspx reply 2 Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated immune response that occurs on the second and following exposures to an antigen. This leads to inflammation and eradication of healthy tissues, also known as an allergic reaction (Randall, 2018). Allergic reactions may be immediate or delayed and are a result of complex immune responses involving degranulation of mast cells, which activates the release of histamine (Randall, 2018). Antigens that are commonly associated with allergic reactions include certain foods, such as peanuts, tree nuts, dairy, eggs, and shellfish; environmental allergens, including mold, pollen, venom from insect stings; and certain medications (Randall, 2018). Signs and symptoms of a mild reaction include itching, hives, watery eyes, rash, scratchy throat, and rhinitis. Although these symptoms are not life-threatening, they can be troublesome for the patient. Anaphylactic shock, on the other hand, is a life-threatening allergic reaction. Symptoms of anaphylaxis include nausea, vomiting, fever, rash, hives, angioedema, feelings of impending doom, bronchospasm, back pain, and circulatory collapse (Randall, 2018). Hypersensitivity can interfere with daily living and relationships. Due to environmental and food allergies, people may avoid social gatherings out of fear of a reaction. This can cause an interruption in social life and a loss of relationships. Dietary restrictions can also interfere with a persons daily living. They will always have to check food labels and ask about any food being served. Even then, there is always fear of a reaction occurring. Sometimes, people may not know the source that is causing their allergic reaction. This can cause frustration and fear. They have to examine everything in their life to identify what is causing their hypersenitivity. For those who have a known antigen that causes anaphylaxis, they will need to carry an EpiPen at all times (Mayo Clinic 2018). References Mayo Clinic. (2018). Allergies. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/allergies/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351503 Randall, J. (2018). Cellular and immunological complexities. In Grand Canyon University (Ed), Pathophysiology: Clinical applications for client health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/
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