[ORDER SOLUTION] List of Human Microbiota
DISCUSSION POST #1Initial Question: (Discuss how antibiotics can harm the bodys normal microbiome and examine how to replenish or increase the normal microbiome)Normal microbiomes live all over the human body–on skin, in gut, in orifices (nose) etc. These microbiomes are typically not harmful. Sometimes these microbiomes cause illness and disease for humans. To combat these diseases and restore the human to baseline health, many providers prescribe the use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics, like penicillin, have saved many lives. Antibiotics decrease gut microbial diversity. However, the increased use of antibiotics have created antibiotic resistant infections. By stimulating the expression of the antibiotic resistance, there is an increase of resistance genes left in the microbiota, creating antibiotic resistant infections. The use of antibiotics heavily disrupts the ecology of the human microbiome (i.e., the collection of cells, genes, and metabolites from the bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses that inhabit the human body) (Langdon et al., 2016). Studies have shown that antibiotics such as amoxicillin can cause shifts in the microbiome that can last from 30 days to 2 months. Antibiotics also affect different areas of the body differently. For example the throat recovers their initial microbial diversity after antibiotics quicker than other areas, like the intestines.For many years it has been thought that microbes are bad, and cleanliness is important to get rid of microbes. Research has shown that we should balance our symbiotic microbial communities to protect us from pathogens and disease states (Ursell et al., 2013, p.811). It is important to have a normal microbiome to protect us. One way to keep the normal microbiome is to not go crazy with cleanliness, like using purell all the time. Especially with children, it is important for them to build their normal microbiome. One of the first natural ways to acquire microbiome, is by a vaginal delivery. This is a natural route of inoculation, which studies have shown that after one month babies born by cesarean section had less microbiome(Ursell et al., 2013, p.814).One way to replenish normal microbiome is with probiotics. Probiotics are live microbes that, when ingested, have health-promoting effects. It is especially useful to take probiotics when taking antibiotics. Another method, in certain cases, is fecal transplants. Fecal microbiome transplantations can be used for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (Ursell et al., 2013, p.815). This type of treatment has been shown to help replenish the normal microbiome in the gut.