Nutriton Essay paper

Nutriton Essay paper Nutriton Essay paper I’m studying for my Nutrition class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? The purpose of this assignment is to synthesize and apply the knowledge you gained in class into a well-written research paper. For this assignment, you will conduct research and write a paper containing three parts: Part I: Analyze diet Part II: Evaluate how the patient’s diet affects: Nutriton Essay paper The person’s health (anatomy) The progression of the illness (pathophysiology) Common medications associated with the disease Part III: Create patient SMART goals and an evidence-based plan of care (patient education). Nutriton Essay paper In addition to the assignment specifics, your paper should: Be 4–5 pages, not including the title and reference pages. Source(s) should be integrated into the paragraphs. Use in-text citations pointing to evidence in the literature and supporting your ideas. Incorporate a minimum of two peer-reviewed sources into your paper. Use current APA format to style your paper and to cite your sources. Follow the list structure of the sample paper for the section on calculations. You can download a sample paper in the Worksheets, Forms, and Templates area at left. Include a title page and a reference page listing the sources you used. Be sure to plan enough time for proofreading and editing. Nutriton Essay paper I Included an example paper final_research_paper_details.pdf model_assignment_nurs_225_sample_final_research_paper.pdf patient_profiles_02_14_17.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Nutriton Essay paper. Final Research Paper: Disease & Nutrition Signature Assignment Details Part I The Diet Include the following in Part I: • • Criterion 1: Determine if the person’s diet is deficient or in excess of CHO, PRO, and fat and explain why. Criterion 2: Explain in detail how the person’s diet meets or does not meet the RDA for five or more micronutrients. Part II Disease and Nutrition Include the following in Part II: • • Criterion 1: Explain how the person’s diet would affect the patient’s disease symptoms and progression. Provide a minimum of three examples of how specific foods affect the disease pathophysiology. Provide examples of foods the person should avoid, and those he/she should consume. Criterion 2: Explain how food interacts with the medications this patient takes. What are the nutrient-related side effects of the medication? What are the nutrient restrictions and recommendations for the medications? o Example: Iron supplements cause constipation, so people are advised to increase fiber foods; however, if a person is taking fiber with iron, the fiber will reduce the absorption of the iron thus decreasing the effectiveness of the iron. Part III Patient Education Include the following in part III: • • Criterion 1: Calculate the following for the patient: BMI, BMR, CHO, PRO, and fat needs and any other relevant calculations that will help you develop a nutritional plan for your patient. Criterion 2: Develop an evidence-based nutritional education plan with three SMART goals for your patient. Provide specific nursing strategies and examples for the patient, and consider all aspects of the patient’s lifestyle. Page | 1 Getting Started Tips Some common diets in the United States: • • • • • • Paleo diet DASH Diabetic Hemodialysis Vegetarian Atkins A few recommended peer-reviewed journals: • • • Journal of American Medical Association Lancet Journal of American Dietetic Association * You may not use WebMD or any Wiki sources. Check with your instructor or librarian to confirm that your sources are credible and scholarly. Your librarians are here to help you with your research questions! Page | 2 Rev 02/14/17 1 Running head: NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER HCG Diet and Cystic Fibrosis West Coast University Orange County Your Name Here NURS 225: Nutrition in Health and Disease 2017 2 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER Topic # 1: HCG Diet Part I, Criteria # 1: Identification of Nutrients According to the Dudek (2016), the RDAs represent the average daily-recommended intake to meet the nutrient requirements of 97% to 98% of healthy individuals by life stage and gender. When estimating the nutritional needs of people with health disorders, health professionals use the RDA’s as a starting point and adjust them according to the individual’s need (Dudek, 2013). Even though HCG is a hormone injection program, there are extremely strict and limited food choice to their diet plan such as: 500 calories limit per day, no cosmetic products that contain fat in them, 2 small apples are not an expectable exchange for 1 apple. Table 1 below lists some foods that patients are allowed to choose from for daily intake (Simeons, 2016). Table 1 The Original HCG Diet Protocol by Dr. Simeons 3 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER Due to such strict rules and limitation on food selection, patients would end up with deficiency in two important macronutrients such as carbohydrate and fat. As we can see, if we plug in some foods from Table 1 above into MyFitnessPal website we would end up with 509 calories, which is very close to what the HCG program requires (Lose weight with MyFitnessPal. Retrieved from However, if we look at the amount of carbohydrate remaining, it is obvious that patients only consume 50% of their daily-recommended calories. Carbohydrate is a macronutrient that is important in providing energy for the daily living. Clearly, patients using HCG program are very limited on fat consumption. Nutriton Essay paper According to example below, if we follow The Original HCG Diet Protocol by Dr. Simeons, we would end up with only 5 grams from fat when the daily-recommended intake is 40 grams. Fats come in multiple different forms. While some are bad and should be limited, some are essential for the body; therefore, limiting the amount of fat consumption to almost completely nothing is not a good diet plan. On the other side, this program provides a very sufficient amount of protein to the patients. As we can see from Table 2 below, patient fulfilled the amount of dailyrecommended requirement, 60 grams, with the additional 4 grams. This might be also the key element to the program that claims that by injecting HCG, patients will not feel hungry. It might be because the high amount of protein patients consume that make them feel less hungry. 4 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER Table 2 Patient Food Diary from MyFitnessPal Showing Daily Intake Goals versus RDAs. Part I, Criteria # 2: RDA Approval Analysis As mentioned previously, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of 97% to 98% of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group (Dudek, 2013). Even though the amount of intake varies on the individual, HCG program still provides patient with very little in micronutrients such as calcium, potassium, iron, fiber, sodium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. However, out of these nutrients, there are five nutrients that the diet is very deficient in: sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, and iron. These 5 nutrients are not even at 50% of the daily- 5 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER recommended intake. Sodium plays an important role in fluid and electrolyte balance. Even though deficiency is rare, patient can experience nausea, dizziness, and/or muscle cramps (Dudek, 2013). Potassium is also important in fluid and electrolyte. It also has nerve impulse transmission function and skeletal and cardiac muscle activity. Deficiency will lead to muscle weakness, anorexia, confusion, and irregular heartbeats (Dudek, 2013). Calcium involves in bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, nerve transmission, contraction and relaxation of muscles, and blood pressure regulation. Deficiency in this mineral can lead to impaired growth in children and osteoporosis in adults (Dudek, 2013). Vitamin A is very important in formation of visual purple, normal growth and development of bones and teeth, healthy skin and hair, and also important in immune function. Deficiency can result in ceases of bone growth, dry skin, decrease saliva production, and impair immune system (Dudek, 2013). Last but not least, iron is very important in transporting oxygen. Iron in foods exists in two forms: heme iron, found in meat, fish, and poultry, and nonheme iron, found in plants such as grains, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The majority of iron in the diet is nonheme iron (Dudek, 2013). Part 2, Criteria 1# Nutrition and Pathophysiology Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder where the individual inherits one defective gene (mutation of the transmembrane conductance regulator gene [CFTR] located on chromosome 7) from each parent and is “characterized by abnormally thick mucus secretions from the epithelial surfaces that results in progressive lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems”. Due to the CFTR’s inability to function properly leads to obstruction of the ducts and glands of affected organs such as the lungs and pancreas, 6 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER digestive tract, liver, skin and reproductive organs (Nahikian-Nelms, Sucher, & Lacey, 2016, pp. 650). Patients with cystic fibrosis, enzymes are suppressed and unable to reach the small intestines related to pancreatic insufficiency secondary to obstructed ducts. These patients will show symptoms such as abdominal distention; frequent bowel movements that are oily, bulky, and foul smelling; and even with normal appetite will present with poor growth pattern, decreased muscle mass and decreased subcutaneous tissue. These patients, both children and adults, are also at risk for electrolyte imbalance and dehydration due to excessive sweating in hot weather and fever related to the increased levels of chloride and sodium in their sweat. Other complications that occur because of the disease process include varices and cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertension; cystic fibrosis related diabetes (10% to 15% of adults of adults) with subsequent clinical complications is acquired. Nutriton Essay paper Also, patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of infection (mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) due to defective or impaired cilia action, which can lead to the inability to clear mucus from the lungs due to the defective regulation of the respiratory tract. The major cause of death (more than 95% of patients) with cystic fibrosis patients is pulmonary insufficiency, which in turn leads to pulmonary failure (Nahikian-Nelms, Sucher, & Lacey, 2016, pp. 650). To prevent nutritional deficiencies, maintain nutritional status, and maximize growth of patients with cystic Fibrosis, early detection is of the utmost importance. Some of these diagnostic tests to help with early detection include DNA analysis of the CFTR gene to confirm mutation, pancreatic function tests, pulmonary function tests, and a sweat chloride test (usually done during the newborn screening). “Common nutrition diagnostic labels for cystic fibrosis include inadequate energy intake, inadequate oral intake, increased energy needs, malnutrition, 7 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER less than optimal intake of fats, inappropriate intake of types of carbohydrates, inconsistent carbohydrate intake, inadequate vitamin and mineral intake, altered GI function, altered nutrition-related laboratory values, underweight, unintended weight loss, self-monitoring deficit, limited adherence to nutrition-related recommendations, and poor nutrition quality of life” (Nahikian-Nelms, Sucher, & Lacey, 2016, pp. 653). Most studies show that cystic fibrosis patients have vitamin and mineral deficiencies including Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Iron and Zinc (mostly children and adolescence). Although Vitamin A deficiency is common, it also can be misleading because during an infection or an acute illness a patient’s the serum plasma Vitamin A levels may be decreased. Due to the increased prevalence of bone fractures and osteoporosis, Vitamin D needs to be monitored carefully to ensure they are receiving the right amount because studies have also shown that CF patients still have low levels of Vitamin D concentrations despite intake of supplements (Nahikian-Nelms, Sucher, & Lacey, 2016, pp. 651652). Part 2, Criteria # 2: Medical and Nutrient Related Interventions and Dietary Needs Timely interventions and accurately assessing their nutritional status is very important because many cystic fibrosis patients may present with multiple nutritional diagnoses at any given time related to the complexity of their disease. Every treatment plan for CF patients will vary from patient to patient but, also usually include the “following components; airway clearance techniques; oral, inhaled and nebulized medications; nutrition therapies; and a fitness plan” (Cystic fibrosis Foundation, n.d.); and nutritional-related medication management with Pancreatic Enzyme Therapy. 8 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER “Because a significant number of individuals with CF have pancreatic insufficiency, malabsorption of dietary fat, protein, fat-soluble vitamins, and other nutrients often occurs… Individuals with CF are prescribed pancreatic enzyme supplements. These enzymes are specifically formulated with an enteric coating that allows for better absorption into the duodenum. The target dose is 1500 to 2500 unit’s lipase/kg… [and the] FDA has issued a rule requiring manufacturers of pancreatic enzyme supplements to obtain approval for their products [because of the inconsistencies in the formulation].” With this new FDA ruling in place, Pancreatic enzyme supplements, like any new drug, must go through the same standards of testing before being distributed to the public (Nahikian-Nelms, Sucher, & Lacey, 2016, p. 652). Nutriton Essay paper Cystic fibrosis patients, especially with pancreatic insufficiencies, need adequate intake of calories to help with development and growth and these needs will vary based on each individual and their nutritional status. These patients usually need 1 ½ to 2 times that amount calories than someone without cystic fibrosis and “if an individual has significant growth deficits, lung disease, or malabsorption, energy requirements may be significantly increased (110%–200% of the RDA for age)”. Usually caloric intake is never restricted or minimized due to the majority of CF patients have difficulty gaining or maintaining their weight (NahikianNelms, Sucher, & Lacey, 2016, p. 652). Cystic fibrosis patients have trouble absorbing fats related to pancreatic insufficiency and in turn they have trouble absorbing fat-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K, which are critical for normal growth. Besides taking these fat-soluble vitamins as supplements they need to ensure they consume appropriate amount of water-soluble vitamins, such as; Vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins (to include biotin and pantothenic acid, and folic acid) (Cystic fibrosis Foundation, n.d.). 9 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER One treatment recommended for cystic fibrosis patients include Airway clearance, which allows the mucus that is thick and viscous to loosen up and dislodge from their lungs allowing for better oxygenation, improve lung function and helps decrease the risk of lung infections. Some techniques include: coughing or huffing; chest physiotherapy (including percussion with cupped hands or equipment can be prescribed and ordered through various manufacturers). Along with these Airway clearance techniques, usually cystic fibrosis patients are on long term bronchodilators (usually nebulized) that can result in abdominal pain and anorexia, corticosteroids, antibiotics like ciprofloxacin may have delayed absorption when taken with dairy products, mucus thinners, and “CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) modulator therapies. [They] are designed to correct the function of the defective protein made by the CF gene and there are currently [only] two FDA-approved CFTR modulators: ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) and lumacaftor/ivacaftor (Orkambi®)” (Cystic fibrosis Foundation, n.d.). Part 3, Criteria # 1 Nutrient Calculations Our patient is a 22-year-old female who is 5’5? (65 inches) and 112 pounds (50.9 kg). BMI Using this calculation, the patient’s BMI is 18.6 and according to the Quick Bite Interpreting BMI Chart, the patient’s BMI barely meets the Healthy Weight, which ranged from 18.5 to 24.9 (Dudek 2014, p. 7). “The 2002 Nutrition Consensus Report states that there is no perfect method to estimate the calorie needs of a person with CF” (Nahikian-Nelms, et al., 2016, p.652). 112/ 65 X 65 (4225) = 0.0265 X 703 = 18.6 BMI BMR 10 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER Since the patient’s BMI falls under the Healthy Weight category to estimate her caloric needs we will use the equation for a healthy adult, which is (weight in kg) x (30 kcal/kg). Using this calculation, we estimate that her calorie intake needs would be roughly be 1527 kcal. The BMI plus activity and food intake is the calculation documented below. 112 X 10 = 1120 X 0.20 (activity) = 224 + 1120 = 1344 X 0.1(food) = 134 + 1344 = 1478 calories/day CHO For carbohydrate intake, should be individualized and “should be monitored to achieve glycemic control. Although carbohydrate is not restricted, patients should be taught to distribute carbohydrate calories throughout the day and to avoid concentrated carbohydrate loads” (Nahikian-Nelms, et al., 2016, p.653). 1478 X 0.45 = 665 calories then/by 4calories/gram = 166 grams/day 1478 X 0.65 = 960 calories then/by 4 calories/gram = 240 grams/day, Daily range 665-960 calories/day from CHO, 166 – 240 grams/day, PRO Protein intake, recommended intake is roughly 1.5 to 2.0 times the Daily Recommended Intake (DRI) for that age (Nahikian-Nelms, et al., 2016, p.653). “The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for healthy adults is 0.8 g/kg” and “the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein for adults is 10% to 35% of total calories” (Dudek 2014, p. 54). With a caloric intake of 1527 kcal, minimum protein intake of 10% and protein equaling 4 kcals/gram, for a healthy patient would need a minimum intake of roughly 38.2 grams. Since a cystic fibrosis patient needs 1.5 to 2.0 times the normal intake of protein, at a minimum a cystic fibrosis patient would need 57.3 grams to 76.4 grams of protein per day. Nutriton Essay paper 11 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER 112 lb. / 2.2 kg/lb. = 50.9 kg. X 0.8 gm/kg = 40.7 grams protein daily, healthy person Or 40.7 grams X 1.5 times as much, requirement = 61grams/day protein X 4 calories/gram = 244 calories/day 40.7 grams X 2 times as much, requirement = 81.4 grams/day X 4 calories/gram = 326 calories/day Daily range 244 – 326 calories/day, or 61 – 81 grams/day FAT For patients with cystic fibrosis , there is no restriction on fat intake because it is essential for weight maintenance. Unlike the 25% to35% recommended fat intake for the normal population, cystic fibrosis patients require a greater fat intake of 35% to 40 % of total kcal (Nahikian-Nelms, et al., 2016, p.653). With a caloric intake of 1527 kcal, maximum fat intake of 40% and fats equaling 9 kcals/grams, the patient would need a minimum intake of roughly 67.9 grams of fat per day. 2839 X 0.35 = 568 calories then/by 9 calories/gram = 63 grams/day 2839 X 0.40 = 994 calories then/by 9 calories/gram = 110 grams/day Daily range 568 – 994 calories/day, or 63 – 110 grams/day Part 3, Criterion #2 SMART Goals and Patient Care Plan SMART Goal # 1: Patient will make a menu for two days, 3 meals/day with a heme rich protein food in two meals, menus will be discussed at the end of the shift. Patient was able to plan six meals with four containing heme rich proteins. Goal met SMART Goal # 2: Patient will consume 75% of 2 meals during this 12—hour shift. Goal met patient consumed 100% of breakfast and 12 NUTRITION FINAL RESEARCH PAPER 75% of lunch. SMART Goal # 3: Patient will consume a serving of probiotic rich food, (yogurt) daily by end of shift. Goal met, patient consumed a Greek yogurt for lunch. Patient is a 22-year-old female who’s 5’5” (65 inches) and 112 pounds (50.9 kg), BMI of 18.6 who was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis at two years old. She came to the ER complaining that she has trouble breathing. Her blood pressure is 130/86, heart rate 92 beats per minute, temperature of 98.8 degrees Fahrenheit, and oxygen saturation at 88% in room air. Patient denies any history of smoking or illicit drug use and occasionally has an alcoholic drink. Patient states that she is still taking Ciprofloxacin after having pneumonia about two weeks ago. As an RN caring for a person with cystic fibrosis, there are many roles and duties that one must be responsible for. An RN must ask the patient if they have any type of food allergies. There are no particular foods that an adult with cystic fibrosis should really avoid, but you must take precautions before giving food that a patient may be allergic to. The RN must assess the patient for low protein by obtaining the serum prealbumin and globulin levels. Patient teaching would include the importance of maintaining a high protein, fat diet with a daily consumption of probiotics (Jafir, 2014). Listen to the patient and what she likes to eat, thus avoiding any ethnocentrici … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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