PHI 301 PMI Nonverbal Communication in Courtrooms California v Scott Peterson Case Law

PHI 301 PMI Nonverbal Communication in Courtrooms California v Scott Peterson Case Law PHI 301 PMI Nonverbal Communication in Courtrooms California v Scott Peterson Case Law ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Critical Thinking and Language It’s very hard to have a discussion with someone if you don’t speak the same language they do. Sometimes having a discussion with someone who does speak the same language is very difficult too, because even though you think you understand the words they’re saying, or think they can understand your words, very little mutual understanding is actually taking place at all. This lesson will examine what language is, and why it’s important to critical thinking. The Arbitrary Nature of Language When people call language arbitrary they mean signifiers don’t belong to their signifieds naturally. If your name is Tony, great, but your name could just as well be Frank or Robert. And if someone says, “Hey you!” or if someone calls you man, or boy, or dude, if someone points at you, or even raises their eyebrows in your direction, those could all work as signifiers as well. The fact you’re named Tony is arbitrary (random). Example: What if the word black, meant the color red? Or what if the word black mean the color green? Word Picture: BLACK or BLACK or BLACK Or consider: In English the word for the color black is black. In Spanish, negro. In French, noir. In German, schwarz. Why can the meaning of the word “black” have so many different signifiers in different languages? If a group of people decide on a meaning for a signifier (word) that becomes the meaning of the word. Everyone taking this course could agree that black now means red, red means yellow, and happiness means frustration. Even though changing meanings would be confusing at first, it could work. The reason we can switch meanings is because language is arbitrary. The arbitrary nature of language is dangerous when it comes to communicating clearly. You need to think critically about the words you speak and the words you interpret. The arbitrary nature of language makes understanding communication difficult. It’s important to consider, and be aware of, the multiple meanings that may be possible within given words or phrases. If you’ve seen the movie Goodfellas, by Martin Scorsese, you may remember the scene where all the gangsters are at dinner and Joe Pesci tells a story that makes everyone laugh. After the story one of his guys (played by Ray Liotta) says, “You’re a funny guy.” To which Pesci says, “Funny how?” Then Pesci gets really angry. Pesci and Liotta have different ideas about what calling a guy funny means. You can watch a video clip of that segment, but it’s not required (and it does contain a smattering of offensive language). The whole world is full of meaning, waiting for us to interpret it. Our tools for interpreting the world are the tools of language. Interpretation using language is a very difficult process because language is not static or always as clear as it may at first seem.PHI 301 PMI Nonverbal Communication in Courtrooms California v Scott Peterson Case Law Do not take the meaning of words, gestures, or things for granted. As much as you can, think critically about meanings. Functions of Language Language games are the different ways you use language according to a given context of conversation, the goals of language in that context, and the people involved in the context language is being used. The language game being played can change on account of culture, gender, race, environment, age, levels of intimacy, personality, styles of communication, and goals of communication amongst other factors. Here are some examples of general language games: Informative language: Language that is either true or false. The function of using informative language, or playing the informative language game, is to give information. Example of informative language: If you want to drive to my house and you’re driving south on I-53, take exit #6 onto Bell Avenue, travel 3.6 miles on Bell and take a right on 3rd Street. My address is 7539 3rd Street. My house is on the right. The directions to my house are either right or wrong. I either live at 7539 3rd Street, or I don’t. The game I’m playing is one of informing. Directive language: Language used to direct or influence actions. Directive language can range from a command to a suggestion. Examples of directive language: “Pass the asparagus please.” “Look at that bird!” “Chew with your mouth closed.” Each of these examples of directive language gives direction for action. Expressive language: Language that communicates feelings and attitudes, such as within poetry, or within some religious language, or music, or simply when you’re expressing your feelings and opinions to someone, or even when you’re expressing your feelings and opinions to yourself, such as in a diary or a journal. Examples of expressive language: “I love asparagus.” “I wish I were a bird.” Things like wearing a certain hat, crying, giving a hug, or even sulking in your chair can also be forms of expressive language. Ceremonial language: Language used in particular prescribed formal circumstances, such as the language used when giving a formal political speech, an awards speech, greeting someone, praying, some legal ceremonies, saying the pledge of allegiance, etc. Examples of ceremonial language: “Do you take this man to be your lawfully wedded husband?” “All rise for the honorable Judge Robertson.” Other examples of ceremonial language would be shaking hands, bowing, folding your hands to pray, or kissing cheeks to greet. Ceremonial language, like all language games, doesn’t have to be verbal. Lighting a candle or wearing certain clothes could be ceremonial language too. PHI 301 PMI Nonverbal Communication in Courtrooms California v Scott Peterson Case Law The Complication of Blending Games When you play sports you usually know what game you’re playing, and it’s usually one game at a time. However, when you are taking part in language games it’s much harder to know what game is being played when, and often more than one game is being played at once. Example: I hate when you wear that shirt. The above sentence is emotive, describing how I feel when you wear that shirt, and perhaps it’s also directional, asking you to not wear that shirt again, at least not around me. There are many different language games, more than listed above. The rules to language games are never perfectly clear, and they’re never guaranteed to be static. The statement “I hate when you wear that shirt,” could also be a comedy language game in the right context. Good critical thinkers are always on their toes, always evaluating the language game, or games, being played and trying to discover what rules are in place. What is Language? Language is a system of symbols that have meaning attached to them. These symbols can be the words we speak, the words we write or read, gestures we make, things we wear, things we build—in short, everything is language because we can interpret everything as having meaning. Language is made up of signifiers and signifieds. For example, the word “chair” is a signifier, and the object intended for the use of sitting is the signified. Signifier: the word “CHAIR” Signified: Another example: If your name is Tony and I say, “HEY TONY!” then the name “Tony” is the signifier, and you as a person in reality that I can point to or shake hands with, is the signified. A broader example: If I’m talking to you and you keep checking the time on your cell phone it probably means you must, or want to, leave soon. You looking at your cell phone is the signifier, you wanting to leave soon is the signified. Another broad example: If you show up to a job interview and the position you’re applying for is pharmaceutical sales, and let’s say you’re wearing a T-shirt with your favorite band on the front, jeans, and sandals. Your outfit is a type of language because it communicates something. In this case it could communicate a few things: You don’t understand how job interviews work, or you don’t understand the importance of appearance, or you don’t really want the job, or you’re not going to be good at the job. How you’re dressed is the signifier, what it communicates is the signified. Think of signifiers as words, and think of everything as words. Think of the signifieds as meanings to those words. … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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