PHI 3200 CU Organs Robbing the Dead Is Organ Conscription Ethical Discussion

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PHI 3200 CU Organs Robbing the Dead Is Organ Conscription Ethical Discussion

PHI 3200 CU Organs Robbing the Dead Is Organ Conscription Ethical Discussion

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Robbing the Dead: The Ethical Implications of Organ Donation

One of the fundamental principles that guides health care providers’ work is to maximize life expectancy. Under this principle, it is critical to employ both natural and artificial methods of lifesaving. However, some of the proposed methods, such as organ conscription, are ethically contentious. The procedure requires health care providers to harvest organs from recently deceased individuals in preparation for transplantation. Consent would be neither required nor required except in very limited circumstances. Due to the fact that the organs are obtained from cadavers, opting out is not an option. The procedure represents a paradigm shift in the way organ transplantation is approached. This paper examines whether consent is required or not, the policy’s fairness, and alternative policies for increasing donor organ availability.

Consent Justifications

Conscription of cadaveric organs is one of the medical procedures governed by the autonomy principle. Prior to obtaining any organ, it is critical to ensure that the donor has given some indication of consent, but this consideration is moot when the donor is already deceased. As Segal and Truog (2017) noted, the primary issue with organ conscription is posthumous wishes and the dignity accorded to life regardless of whether it is alive or dead. In general, when considering expanding transplantation options, it is critical to respect people’s voluntary decision to do with their bodies even after death.

Concerning consent, it would be pointless to consent to the conscription of cadaveric organs if the individual’s family cannot be located. Occasionally, people die mysteriously, to the point where no afterlife rituals are performed and their bodies are buried in disposals. Under such circumstances, it is reasonable to assume that such bodies lack ethical foundations that would preclude conscription. The other instance is when the religious background of the cadaver can be determined. Shaw et al. (2018) argued that religious objections underpin the majority of possible exemptions to conscription. If a person’s background can be traced, such as in the case of atheists, removing their organs for conscription is ethically justifiable.

However, in certain circumstances, consent to conscription would be required. One of these instances is when a person’s wishes must be respected. In practice, health care providers must adhere to the principle of non-interference. When this model is applied, it is typically the state that determines the extent to which people’s wishes are interfered with when they die. If there is convincing evidence that they were bound by religious beliefs at some point in their lives or made an unclear wish regarding the use of their bodies after death, consent from proxies should be sought. The primary reason is to avoid ethical dilemmas or potential violations of donor registration principles.

Conscription’s Fairness

Despite its contentious nature, conscription of cadaveric organs is strongly advocated in order to increase organ transplantation. The process is frequently justified by the utilitarian theory’s fundamental principle, which states that actions are justified as long as they result in pleasure and happiness (Munson, 2014). Given that organ conscription increases pleasure and happiness and has no adverse effect on the lives of the deceased, it is a just process from a utilitarian standpoint.
The other point demonstrating the fairness of organ conscription is the connection between people with end-stage organ disease (ESOD) and those who have recently died. As Loughery et al. (2018) posited, these individuals are inextricably linked because one side contains individuals whose lives can be saved or prolonged, while the other side contains individuals who possess valuable resources that are useless to them. Without jeopardizing the principle of self-determination and dignity, conscription is simply a means of obtaining a resource that should be freely available to society. Without adding to the complexity of the situation with religious, cultural, and emotional attachments, the dilemma is easily grasped. In this case, many people die while waiting for an organ transplant, while others die with viable, functional organs suitable for harvesting. Conscription is fair and just in general, but not from a medical standpoint.

Expanding the Donor Organ Pool

To save lives, it is critical to support life-changing processes, such as increasing the availability of donor organs. Munson (2014) took a utilitarian approach to the process of organ donation. As long as the process is conducted in the public interest, it is rational. Munson discusses alternative policies for increasing donor organ availability, including compensating living donors. In this case, the world should not prohibit organ sales on the grounds that paid donation reduces society’s altruism and may result in decreased donations from deceased donors. This policy should be supported because the goal should be to save and prolong lives to the greatest extent possible, provided that consent or presumed consent exists.

In conclusion, developing a universally accepted position on the conscription of cadaveric organs is difficult. Consent appears to be at the heart of the controversy surrounding the issue, as it is critical to respect cadavers’ decisions regarding their body organs after death. While consent is paramount, it is critical to approach the issue from a medical standpoint. If the world is to support life, it must alter its religious and cultural perspectives on the dead and adopt a view of body parts as valuable resources.

Write a 2-3 page paper that examines the moral and ethical considerations of organ conscription policies and theories.

Scarcity of Medical Resources
For this assessment, you will continue your survey of ethical principles in health care. Especially in our contemporary world, where needs for health care outstrip available resources, we regularly face decisions about who should get which resources.

There is a serious shortage of donor organs. Need vastly outstrips supply, due not only to medical advances related to organ transplantation, but also because not enough people consent to be cadaveric donors (an organ donor who has already died). Munson (2014) points out that in the United States, approximately 10,000 patients die each year because an organ donor was not available, which is three times the number of people killed in the terrorist attacks on 9/11.

But what is an efficient and morally sound solution to this problem? The policy of presumed consent, where enacted, has scarcely increased supply, and other alternatives, such as allowing donors to sell their organs, raise strong moral objections. In light of this, some have advocated for a policy of conscription of cadaveric organs (Spital & Erin, 2002). This involves removing organs from the recently deceased without first obtaining consent of the donor or his or her family. Proponents of this policy argue that conscription would not only vastly increase the number of available organs, and hence save many lives, but that it is also more efficient and less costly than policies requiring prior consent. Finally, because with a conscription policy all people would share the burden of providing organs after death and all would stand to benefit should the need arise, the policy is fair and just.

Demonstration of Proficiency
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Articulate ethical issues in health care.
Articulate the moral concerns surrounding a policy of organ conscription.
Articulate questions about the fairness and justness of organ conscription policy.
Explain the relevance and significance of the concept of consent as it pertains to organ donation.
Evaluate alternative policies for increasing available donor organs.
Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with health care professionals.
Exhibit proficiency in clear and effective academic writing skills.
References
Munson, R. (2014). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics (concise ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Spital, A., & Erin, C. (2002). Conscription of cadaveric organs for transplantation: Let’s at least talk about it. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 39(3), 611–615.

Instructions
Do you consider the policy of organ conscription to be morally sound?

Write a paper that answers this question, defending that answer with cogent moral reasoning and supporting your view with ethical theories or moral principles you take to be most relevant to the issue. In addition to reviewing the suggested resources, you are encouraged to locate additional resources in the Capella library, your public library, or authoritative online sites to provide additional support for your viewpoint. Be sure to weave and cite the resources throughout your work.

In your paper, address the following:

On what grounds could one argue that consent is not ethically required for conscription of cadaveric organs? And on what grounds could one argue that consent is required?
Is the policy truly just and fair, as supporters claim? Explain.
Do you consider one of the alternative policies for increasing available donor organs that Munson discusses to be preferable to conscription? Explain why or why not.
Submission Requirements
Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.
Length: 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

Question Description
Write a 2-3 page paper that examines the moral and ethical considerations of organ conscription policies and theories.
SCARCITY OF MEDICAL RESOURCES
For this assessment, you will continue your survey of ethical principles in health care. Especially in our contemporary world, where needs for health care outstrip available resources, we regularly face decisions about who should get which resources.There is a serious shortage of donor organs. Need vastly outstrips supply, due not only to medical advances related to organ transplantation, but also because not enough people consent to be cadaveric donors (an organ donor who has already died). Munson (2014) points out that in the United States, approximately 10,000 patients die each year because an organ donor was not available, which is three times the number of people killed in the terrorist attacks on 9/11.But what is an efficient and morally sound solution to this problem? The policy of presumed consent, where enacted, has scarcely increased supply, and other alternatives, such as allowing donors to sell their organs, raise strong moral objections. In light of this, some have advocated for a policy of conscription of cadaveric organs (Spital & Erin, 2002). This involves removing organs from the recently deceased without first obtaining consent of the donor or his or her family. Proponents of this policy argue that conscription would not only vastly increase the number of available organs, and hence save many lives, but that it is also more efficient and less costly than policies requiring prior consent. Finally, because with a conscription policy allpeople would share the burden of providing organs after death and all would stand to benefit should the need arise, the policy is fair and just.
DEMONSTRATION OF PROFICIENCY
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and scoring guide criteria:
Competency 1: Articulate ethical issues in health care.
Articulate the moral concerns surrounding a policy of organ conscription.
Articulate questions about the fairness and justness of organ conscription policy.
Explain the relevance and significance of the concept of consent as it pertains to organ donation.
Evaluate alternative policies for increasing available donor organs.
Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with health care professionals.
Exhibit proficiency in clear and effective academic writing skills.
References
Munson, R. (2014). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics (concise ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.Spital, A., & Erin, C. (2002). Conscription of cadaveric organs for transplantation: Let’s at least talk about it. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 39(3), 611–615.
INSTRUCTIONS
Do you consider the policy of organ conscription to be morally sound?Write a paper that answers this question, defending that answer with cogent moral reasoning and supporting your view with ethical theories or moral principles you take to be most relevant to the issue. In addition to reviewing the suggested resources, you are encouraged to locate additional resources in the Capella library, your public library, or authoritative online sites to provide additional support for your viewpoint. Be sure to weave and cite the resources throughout your work.In your paper, address the following:
On what grounds could one argue that consent is not ethically required for conscription of cadaveric organs? And on what grounds could one argue that consent is required?
Is the policy truly just and fair, as supporters claim? Explain.
Do you consider one of the alternative policies for increasing available donor organs that Munson discusses to be preferable to conscription? Explain why or why not.
SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS
Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.
Length: 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

 

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

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Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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