Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion

Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research. Summarize your understanding of this week’s step of the research process b. What challenges did you encounter in applying this week’s step of the research process? c. How did you mitigate the challenges? Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion Differentiate among population, target population, accessible population, elements of a population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample, sample representativeness, and how to determine adequate sample size in quantitative and qualitative research. o Identify the specific type of probability and non-probability sampling methods in quantitative and qualitative research Review Grove, Gray, & Burns Chapter 9 Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion susan_k._grove__jennifer_r._gray_____nancy_burns_understanding_nursing_research__building_an_evidence_based____practice_saunders__2014_.pdf YOU’VE JUST PURCHASED MORE THAN A TEXTBOOK! Evolve Student Resources for Grove: Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice, 6th Edition, include the following: • Review Questions • Research Article Library • Appraisal Exercises • Key Points Activate the complete learning experience that comes with each textbook purchase by registering at http://evolve.elsevier.com/Grove/understanding/ REGISTER TODAY! You can now purchase Elsevier products on Evolve! Go to evolve.elsevier.com/html/shop-promo.html to search and browse for products. CONTENTS 1 Introduction to Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice, 1 2 Introduction to Quantitative Research, 31 3 4 5 6 Introduction to Qualitative Research, 66 Examining Ethics in Nursing Research, 93 Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses, 129 Understanding and Critically Appraising the Literature Review, 162 7 Understanding Theory and Research Frameworks, 189 8 Clarifying Quantitative Research Designs, 210 9 Examining Populations and Samples in Research, 248 10 Clarifying Measurement and Data Collection in Quantitative Research, 281 11 Understanding Statistics in Research, 317 12 Critical Appraisal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research for Nursing Practice, 361 13 Building an Evidence-Based Nursing Practice, 414 14 Outcomes Research, 466 Glossary, 500 Index, 515 This page intentionally left blank 6th Edition Understanding Nursing Research Building an Evidence-Based Practice Susan K. Grove, PhD, RN, ANP-BC, GNP-BC Professor Emerita College of Nursing The University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, Texas; Adult Nurse Practitioner Family Practice Grand Prairie, Texas Jennifer R. Gray, PhD, RN, FAAN George W. and Hazel M. Jay Professor, College of Nursing Associate Dean, College of Nursing The University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, Texas Nancy Burns, PhD, RN, FCN, FAAN Professor Emerita College of Nursing The University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, Texas; Faith Community Nurse St. Matthew Cumberland Presbyterian Church Burleson, Texas 3251 Riverport Lane St. Louis, Missouri 63043 UNDERSTANDING NURSING RESEARCH: BUILDING AN EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE, EDITION SIX ISBN: 978-1-4557-7060-1 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2003, 1999, 1995 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions. This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein). Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions. Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein. International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4557-7060-1 Executive Content Strategist: Lee Henderson Content Development Manager: Billie Sharp Content Development Specialist: Charlene Ketchum Publishing Services Manager: Deborah L. Vogel Project Manager: Bridget Healy Design Direction: Maggie Reid Printed in China Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 C O N T R I B U TO R A N D REVIEWERS CONTRIBUTOR Diane Doran, RN, PhD, FCAHS Professor Emerita Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario Revised Chapter 14 REVIEWERS Lisa D. Brodersen, EdD, MA, RN Professor, Coordinator of Institutional Research and Effectiveness Allen College Waterloo, Iowa Sara L. Clutter, PhD, RN Associate Professor of Nursing Waynesburg University Waynesburg, Pennsylvania Jacalyn P. Dougherty, PhD, RN Nursing Research Consultant JP Dougherty LLC Aurora, Colorado Joanne T. Ehrmin, RN, COA-CNS, PhD, MSN, BSN Professor University of Toledo, College of Nursing Toledo, Ohio Betsy Frank, PhD, RN, ANEF Professor Emerita Indiana State University College of Nursing Health, and Human Services Terre Haute, Indiana Tamara Kear, PhD, RN, CNS, CNN Assistant Professor of Nursing Villanova University Villanova, Pennsylvania Sharon Kitchie, PhD, RN Adjunct Instructor Keuka College Keuka Park, New York Madelaine Lawrence, PhD, RN Associate Professor University of North Carolina at Wilmington Wilmington, North Carolina Robin Moyers, PhD, RN-BC Nurse Educator Carl Vinson VA Medical Center Dublin, Georgia Sue E. Odom, DSN, RN Professor of Nursing Clayton State University Morrow, Georgia Teresa M. O’Neill, PhD, APRN, RNC Professor Our Lady of Holy Cross College New Orleans, Louisiana Sandra L. Siedlecki, PhD, RN, CNS Senior Nurse Scientist Cleveland Clinic Cleveland, Ohio Sharon Souter, PhD, RN, CNE Dean and Professor University of Mary Hardin Baylor Belton, Texas v vi CONTRIBUTOR AND REVIEWERS Molly J. Walker, PhD, RN, CNS, CNE Professor Angelo State University San Angelo, Texas Cynthia Ward, DNP, RN-BC, CMSRN, ACNS-BC Surgical Clinical Nurse Specialist Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital Roanoke, Virginia Angela Wood, PhD, RN, Certified High-Risk Prenatal Nurse Associate Professor and Chair Department of Nursing Carson-Newman University Jefferson City, Tennessee Fatma A. Youssef, RN, DNSc, MPH Professor Emerita Marymount University School of Health Professions Arlington, Virginia To all nurses who change the lives of patients through applying the best research evidence. —Susan, Jennifer, and Nancy To my husband Jay Suggs who has provided me endless love and support during my development of research textbooks over the last 30 years. —Susan To my husband Randy Gray who is my love and my cheerleader. —Jennifer To my husband Jerry who has supported all of my academic endeavors through 58 years of marriage. Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion —Nancy P R E FAC E Research is a major force in nursing, and the evidence generated from research is constantly changing practice, education, and health policy. Our aim in developing this essentials research text, Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice, is to create an excitement about research in undergraduate students. The text emphasizes the importance of baccalaureate-educated nurses being able to read, critically appraise, and synthesize research so this evidence can be used to make changes in practice. A major goal of professional nursing and health care is the delivery of evidence-based care. By making nursing research an integral part of baccalaureate education, we hope to facilitate the movement of research into the mainstream of nursing. We also hope this text increases student awareness of the knowledge that has been generated through nursing research and that this knowledge is relevant to their practice. Only through research can nursing truly be recognized as a profession with documented effective outcomes for the patient, family, nurse provider, and healthcare system. Because of this expanded focus on evidence-based practice (EBP), we have subtitled this edition Building an Evidence-Based Practice. Developing a sixth edition of Understanding Nursing Research has provided us with an opportunity to clarify and refine the essential content for an undergraduate research text. The text is designed to assist undergraduate students in overcoming the barriers they frequently encounter in understanding the language used in nursing research. The revisions in this edition are based on our own experiences with the text and input from dedicated reviewers, inquisitive students, and supportive faculty from across the country who provided us with many helpful suggestions. Chapter 1, Introduction to Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice, introduces the reader to nursing research, the history of research, and the significance of research evidence for nursing practice. This chapter has been revised to include the most relevant types of research synthesis being conducted in nursing—systematic review, meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, and mixedmethods systematic review. The discussion of research methodologies and their importance in generating an evidence-based practice for nursing has been updated and expanded to include the exploratory-descriptive qualitative research method. A discussion of the Quality and Safety Education for Nursing (QSEN) competencies and their link to research has been included in this edition. Selected QSEN competencies are linked to the findings from studies presented as examples throughout the text to increase students’ understanding of the importance in delivering quality, safe health care to patients and families. Chapter 2, Introduction to Quantitative Research, presents the steps of the quantitative research process in a concise, clear manner and introduces students to the focus and findings of quantitative studies. Extensive, recent examples of descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies are provided, which reflect the quality of current nursing research. Chapter 3, Introduction to Qualitative Research, describes five approaches to qualitative research and the philosophies upon which they are based. Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion These approaches include phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, exploratory-descriptive qualitative, and historical research. Data collection and analysis methods specific to qualitative research are discussed. Guidelines for reading and critically appraising qualitative studies are explained using examples of published studies. viii PREFACE ix Chapter 4, Examining Ethics in Nursing Research, provides an extensive discussion of the use of ethics in research and the regulations that govern the research process. Detailed content and current websites are provided to promote students’ understanding of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Protection of Human Subjects, and the Federal Drug Administration regulations. Guidelines are provided to assist students in critically appraising the ethical discussions in published studies and to participate in the ethical review of research in clinical agencies. Chapter 5, Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses, clarifies the difference between a problem and a purpose. Example problem and purpose statements are included from current qualitative, quantitative, and outcome studies. Detailed guidelines are provided with examples to direct students in critically appraising the problems, purposes, hypotheses, and variables in studies. Chapter 6, Understanding and Critically Appraising the Literature Review, begins with a description of the content and quality of different types of publications that might be included in a review. Guidelines for critically appraising published literature reviews are explored with a focus on the differences in the purpose and timing of the literature review in quantitative and qualitative studies. The steps for finding appropriate sources, reading publications, and synthesizing information into a logical, cohesive review are presented. Chapter 7, Understanding Theory and Research Frameworks, briefly describes grand, middle range, physiological, and scientific theories as the bases for study frameworks. The purpose of a research framework is discussed with the acknowledgement that the framework may be implicit. Guidelines for critically appraising the study framework are presented as well. The guidelines are applied to studies with frameworks derived from research findings and from different types of theories. Chapter 8, Clarifying Quantitative Research Designs, addresses descriptive, correlational, quasiexperimental, and experimental designs and criteria for critically appraising these designs in studies. The major strengths and threats to design validity are summarized in a table and discussed related to current studies. This chapter has been expanded to include an introduction to randomized controlled trials (RCT) and mixed-methods approaches being conducted by nurses. Chapter 9, Examining Populations and Samples in Research, provides a detailed discussion of the concepts of sampling in research. Different types of sampling methods for both qualitative and quantitative research are described. Guidelines are included for critically appraising the sampling criteria, sampling method, and sample size of quantitative and qualitative studies. Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion Chapter 10, Clarifying Measurement and Data Collection in Quantitative Research, has been updated to reflect current knowledge about measurement methods used in nursing research. Content has been expanded and uniquely organized to assist students in critically appraising the reliability and validity of scales; precision and accuracy of physiologic measures; and the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of diagnostic and screening tests. Chapter 11, Understanding Statistics in Research, focuses on the theories and concepts of the statistical analysis process and the statistics used to describe variables, examine relationships, predict outcomes, and examine group differences in studies. Guidelines are provided for critically appraising the results and discussion sections of nursing studies. The results from selected studies are critically appraised and presented as examples throughout this chapter. Chapter 12, Critical Appraisal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research for Nursing Practice, summarizes and builds on the critical appraisal content provided in previous chapters and offers direction for conducting critical appraisals of quantitative and qualitative studies. The guidelines for critically appraising qualitative studies have been significantly revised and simplified. This x PREFACE chapter also includes a current qualitative and quantitative study, and these two studies are critically appraised using the guidelines provided in this chapter. Chapter 13, Building an Evidence-Based Nursing Practice, has been significantly updated to reflect the current trends in health care to provide evidence-based nursing practice. Detailed guidelines are provided for critically appraising the four common types of research synthesis conducted in nursing (systematic review, meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, and mixed-method systematic review). These guidelines were used to critically appraise current research syntheses to assist students in examining the quality of published research syntheses and the potential use of research evidence in practice. The chapter includes theories to assist nurses and agencies in moving toward EBP. Translational research is introduced as a method for promoting the use of research evidence in practice. Chapter 14, Introduction to Outcomes Research, was significantly revised by Dr. Diane Doran, one of the leading authorities in the conduct of outcomes research. The goal of this chapter is to increase students’ understanding of the impact of outcomes research on nursing and health care. Content and guidelines are provided to assist students in reading and critically appraising the outcomes studies appearing in the nursing literature. The sixth edition is written and organized to facilitate ease in reading, understanding, and critically appraising studies. The major strengths of the text are as follows: • State-of-the art coverage of EBP—a topic of vital importance in nursing. • Balanced coverage of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. • Rich and frequent illustration of major points and concepts from the most current nursing research literature from a variety of clinical practice areas. • Study findings implications for practice and link to QSEN competencies were provided. • A clear, concise writing style that is consistent among the chapters to facilitate student learning. • Populations and sampling methods in both quantitative and qualitative research discussion Electronic references and websites that direct the student to an extensive array of information that is important in reading, critically appraising, and using research knowledge in practice. This sixth edition of Understanding Nursing Research is appropriate for use in a variety of undergraduate research courses for both RN and general students because it provides an introduction to quantitative, qualitative, and outcomes research methodologies. This text not only will assist students in reading research literature, critically appraising published studies, and summarizing research evidence to make changes in practice, but it also can serve as a valuable resource for practicing nurses in critically appraising studies and implementing research evidence in their clinical settings. LEARNING RESOURCES TO ACCOMPANY UNDERSTANDING NURSING RESEARCH, 6TH EDITION The teaching/learning resources to accompany Understanding Nursing Research have been expanded for both the instructor and student to allow a maximum level of flexibility in course design and student review. Evolve Instructor Resources A comprehensive suite of Instructor Resources is available online at http://evolve.elsevier.com/ Grove/understanding/ and consists of a Test Bank, PowerPoint slides, an Image Collection, Answer PREFACE xi Guidelines for the Appraisal Exercises provided for students, and new TEACH for Nurses Lesson Plans, which replace and enhance the Instructor’s Manual provided for previous editions. Test Bank The Test Bank consists of approximately 550 NCLEX® Examination–style questions, including approximately 10% of questions in alternate item formats. Each question is coded with the correct answer, a rationale from the textbook, a page cross-reference, and the cognitive level in the new Bloom’s Taxonomy (with the cognitive level from the original Bloom’s Taxonomy in parentheses). The Test Bank is provided in ExamView and Evolve LMS formats. PowerPoint Slides The PowerPoint slide collection contains approximately 800 slides, now including seamlessly integrated Audience Response System Questions, images, and new Unfolding Case Studies. The PowerPoints have been simplified and converted into bulleted-list format (using less narrative). Content details in the slides have been moved as appropriate into the Notes area of the slides. New Unfolding Case Studies focus on practical EBP/PICO questions, such as a nurse on a unit needing to perform a literature search or to identify a systematic review or meta-analysis. PowerPoint presentations are fully customizable. Image Collection The electr … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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