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i need someone to paraphrase these 2 essays into one just change the words i only need 500 words


Summarize any one chapter of the handbook on epidemiological investigation and provide one example of a US or international public health emergency in which this science was used or likely used.??

ansswer one


Law Enforcement Section

The primary goals of a criminal investigation for a biological threat include protection of public health and safety, prevention of subsequent attacks, identification of prosecutors and protection of the law enforcement personnel. If the law enforcement and public health develop a strong relationship prior to the event, there are high chances that the population will be more satisfied. Once the law enforcement feels suspicious that a crime has taken place, they ensure that all the procedures are taken under accountability. Any kind of failure to properly maintain the chain of custody might lead to the evidence being unsuitable for trial.

In 1999, the vulnerability of the food supply was illustrated in Belgium, when chickens were unintentionally exposed to dioxin-contaminated fat used to make animal feed. Because the contamination was not discovered for months, the dioxin – a cancer-causing chemical that does not cause immediate symptoms in humans, was probably present in chicken meat and eggs sold in Europe during early 1999. This incident underscores the need for prompt diagnoses of unusual or suspicious health problems in animals as well as humans, a lesson that was also demonstrated by the recent outbreak of mosquito-borne West Nile virus in birds and humans in New York City in 1999. The dioxin episode also demonstrates how a covert act of food-borne biological or chemical terrorism could affect commerce and human or animal health.

Thus in such situations, the requirement for collection and testing to save lives outweighs the normal evidence collection procedures.

  • Butler, J. C., Cohen, M. L., Friedman, C. R., Scripp, R. M., & Watz, C. G. (2002). Collaboration between public health and law enforcement: new paradigms and partnerships for bioterrorism planning and response. Emerging infectious diseases, 8(10), 1152.

answer 2


Summary of Chapter 2: Public Health

Epidemiological investigations serve to identify the source of a particular disease, identify ways to control it and implement the identified ways to ensure the public remains safe. Data applied in epidemiological investigations is obtained from patient interviews, surveys and also surveillance systems (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2015). Epidemiological investigations serve to attain various goals that include; stopping the spread of a disease by identifying the causative agent, determining the source, how the disease is transmitted and the population at risk to acquire that disease (CDC, 2015). Secondly, epidemiological investigations serve to protect the public’s health. This is attained through surveillance, medical countermeasures and also offering education to the public about various illnesses and how they can aid in controlling them and protecting themselves.

Epidemiological investigations also protect the public health and those who respond to various epidemiologic pandemics by offering protective equipment and also preventive interventions. These preventive interventions include the use of medications and vaccines to protect one from a acquiring an illness that can otherwise be prevented (CDC, 2015). Epidemiologic investigations comprise of various elements. This entails what makes an epidemiologic investigation complete. The elements include; detecting unusual events, confirming a diagnosis, identifying and characterizing additional cases, determining the source of exposure and finally developing and implementing investigations (CDC, 2015). An epidemiologic investigation is termed complete if all the above-mentioned elements are completed.

Laboratory analysis is an important aspect in an epidemiologic investigation. It entails conducting lab works to determine the causative agent of an illness. Even though lab works are important in confirming that, during an outbreak, physicians should commence management as they wait for the identification of the causative agent (CDC, 2015). Taking this approach increases a patient’s probability of recovering from an illness as the progression of the disease is curbed. Field assays are examples of tests conducted to identify the causative agents. During such investigations, only laboratories that meet standard should be utilized. The FBI, CDC and the APHL established the Laboratory Response Network (LRN) in 1999 (CDC, 2015). LRN entails a network of laboratories that are situated across the country to carry out the investigation tests. These laboratories meet all the required standards. These outlined steps were applicable during 2008 United States salmonellosis attack. The epidemiologic investigation steps and approaches were applied to curb the pandemic.


Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015). Joint Criminal and Epidemiological Investigations Handbook, domestic edition. Retrieved from https://bblearn.philau.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/18FL-DMM-643-999/criminal-and-epidemiological-investigation-handbook%281%29.PDF

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