[SOLVED] discuss how the types of threats discussed in the article referenced above could impact our economy, and how implementing Diversity and Commonality could help mitigate these threats.
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1. The threats related to cyber security and internal attacks can cause a serious impact on the countrys economy because of an attack on the pipelines that carry fuel or gas and the essential needs like water will create a huge loss and they can be explosion and loss, as well as a scarcity of them and this, will lead to the recovery activity and when the recovery cannot be done and there will be a price that have to be paid by the country and this, in turn, will reduce the levels of inventory and sometimes nothing will be left-back and the stock prices and the investors will be in losses as the stock market gets affected when these kinds of scenarios will occur. The cyber-attack can manipulate the systems security and can lead to dangerous events and these when combined with insider an attack can turn into a large scale disaster that will occur. These threats will be quarantined with the help of best practices towards security and implementing multiple layers of security (Myers, 2018).
The introduction of diversity and commonality will help in containing the threats by seeing that we will get the resource from any part of the world as there is a shortage in the resources that are more skillful in the cyber security protection. If the organizations will stick to the policy of making the recruitment only with the people available around who are just with low experiences and low talent that will be a mistake as this will not help the organizations in combating with the cyber security threats that are increasing day by day in the present world. There will be a lot of benefits if the recruitment teams will introduce diverse teams in the organization to fight and protect against the cyber security threats which will definitely show a difference than the previous condition (phe.gov, 2019).
Myers, L. (2018). How diversity in cybersecurity contributes to your company. Retrieved from,
phe.gov. (2019). Health Industry Cybersecurity Practices. Managing Threats and Protecting Patients. Retrieved from, https://www.phe.gov/preparedness/planning/405d/documents/hicp-main-508.pdf
Cybersecurity has increased to be a leading concern for the national security agencies of the United States. Cyber threats to energy-producing in the oil and gas area are of rising worry to trade and government. Like members in other significant businesses, oil and gas firms are much of the time focuses on undercover work movement, which has intensely moved on the web (Bronk, 2014).
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) ICS team in 2012 reported that 41 percent of energy companies were attacked by malicious software (Clayton, 2013). Natural gas channel blasts, while distressing and repeatedly fatal, aren’t the major concern for the power division. As an alternative, several sources explained how outages at essential gas compressor stations might separate gas provisions to power generators. Low gas forces possibly will strength power plants to flame in the course of crisis fuel.
Widely traded firms frequently examine their cyber threat in common provisions in SEC filings. Walkway Pipeline Partners LP, the main gas diffusion firm, warned in a current economic confession that assured cyber attacks may stay hidden for an extensive stage, in addition to the assurance exposure for cyberattacks might not be adequate to face all the fatalities that they may experience as risks keep on to go forward.
The safety of particular channel attributes on a subdivision base relics a vital fear, especially persons who can highlight possible elevated outcomes. SCADA system can take a vital role by taking all the necessary action and meanwhile operators may turn back to open the valves in certain situations if necessary. SCADA system is a sort of new factor that has begun to be associated with the internet as indicated by arranging to join. It is emphatically identified with our day by day life, in this manner the ordinary activity of the system is basic and that is the motivation behind why the system ought to be unequivocally secured (Kang, 2009).
Bronk, C. (2014). Hacks on gas: Energy, cybersecurity, and US defense.
Clayton, B., & Segal, A. (2013). Addressing cyber threats to oil and gas suppliers. Council on Foreign Relations.
Kang, D. J., Lee, J. J., Kim, S. J., & Park, J. H. (2009, October). Analysis on cyber threats to SCADA systems. In 2009 Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition: Asia and Pacific (pp. 1-4). IEEE.
Threats on National Infrastructure (Pipelines) and its Impact on National Economy
The article is referred to as centers around a few dangers to the US petroleum gas utilities. It’s coordinated by a programmer codenamed ‘UglyGorilla,’ who took touchy information from gas pipeline organizations and ruptured the country’s economy (Sobczak, 2019). Those dangers have been occurring and will keep on happening at a quickened rate, except if the dependable divisions assume responsibility. Such risks, similar to the one on the country’s pipeline tasks, have noteworthy to the country’s economy.
It ends forward progress of any task, and powers the offices and organizations worried, to return and address the ruptures. Additionally, for any information seized, the organizations need to alter their frameworks just as concoct new structures. Therefore, they are both resistant to further rupturing and don’t depend on the information that has been taken dangers, economy, and assorted variety or shared original example articles. Along these lines, the data stolen gets outdated and doesn’t enable the programmers to accomplish more harm. The way that establishments are compelled to do harm control, just as devise new ideas for positive advancement, implies they slowdown in their tasks. This utilizes additional assets and cash to avoid programmers.
Assaults to the country’s flammable gas framework could close off a vast number of individuals from getting to gas as they typically do. It would expand the costs of the accessible asset and slow down the country’s advancement, yet besides, contrarily influence the Dollar’s quality. Commonality and diversity could help alleviate the digital dangers as it would oblige all Americans, paying little heed to race, sex, and different qualifications. This is what is causing them to perform at their ideal levels (Craig, Rucker & Richeson, 2018). Digital dangers will proceed into the future. Our lone choice is to ensure our frameworks are sufficient, not to be powerless against those dangers, basically slowing down the nation’s advancement.
Craig, M. A., Rucker, J. M., & Richeson, J. A. (2018). The pitfalls and promise of increasing racial diversity: Threat, contact, and race relations in the 21st century. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 188-193.
Sobczak, B. (2019). Retrieved 5 November 2019, from https://burnmorecoal.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/1…
Cyber-attacks that successfully target national infrastructure have a significant opportunity to disrupt our economy. In the assigned reading, we learned of hackers attempting to disrupt the flow of natural gas, which could ultimately result in failure to the electrical grid. Electricity is required for many of the necessities in our life, such as producing water, powering public transportation (i.e. the subway), and lighting our homes. Additionally, the information age is dependent on electricity for keeping the internet accessible. Gas, electricity, and/or water outages are more than an inconvenience; they can prove to be deadly.
Venezuela has experienced a number of blackouts this year causing citizens to drink directly from polluted water sources. According to Molina (2019), the outage resulted in disruption to oil production as well governmental operations. Because office workers were unable to perform their duties, employment was reduced and the overall economy was effected negatively.
Manipulating SCADA controls has the potential to cause financial and personal loss when disabling safety systems. Malware has been discovered that was designed to prevent emergency actions, such as opening relief valves, from occurring in refineries and power plants (Kirkpatrick, 2019). Defeating such a system in a nuclear power plant would have the potential of causing a catastrophic meltdown.
Two considerations that should be made in developing a plan to combat cyber-attacks include diversity and commonality. While the two topics appear to be at odds with each other, there are scenarios in which a middle-ground solution may be most effective.
Diversity suggests that different types of systems (hardware and software) be used throughout the design of a system, such as in the selection of computer operating systems. This ensures that if one system, such as Microsoft Windows, becomes compromised by malware, it will not necessarily spread to systems running disparate operating systems, such as Linux. Having an array of option makes the task of compromising all systems much more complicated (IEEE Transactions, 2019). The goal is that, while some portions of the system may be compromised, the remaining systems can be used during the attack or as a replacement until other arrangements are made.
Commonality is the process of ensuring that all agencies are adopting the best of the best practices and learning from each other. Security measures are applied uniformly in all areas, not just the ones that seem most important. Amoroso (2013) says such policies may include firewall configurations, system patching, password requirements, and much more. All areas are audited for compliance with the understanding that compromise in any unit may have devastating potential.
Additionally, commonality is about creating uniform policy to enhance the standards of information technology. Suggestions have been proposed to increase longevity in government positions by matching salaries with the private sector and offering advanced leadership opportunities. The goal is to keep the best employees working in fields in which they may offer the most protection (Amoroso 2013).
A Diversity-Based Substation Cyber Defense Strategy Utilizing Coloring Games. (2019). IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, (5), 5405. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2018.2881672
Amoroso, E. G. (2013). Cyber attacks: protecting national infrastructure. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann
Kirkpatrick, K. (2019). Protecting Industrial Control Systems. Communications of the ACM, 62(10), 1416. https://doi.org/10.1145/3355377
Molina, B. (2019, March 12). Venezuela has endured four days of blackouts. This is what it looks like there. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2019/03/12/venezuela-blackouts-political-unrest-photos/3138209002/
Cyber Threats against the National Infrastructure
Many of the attacks were done on the utilities of the natural gas in the United States that can easily set the bells of the alarm. These take place in the community of the intelligence of the United States. By using the sensitive data or the private data of the information it implements particular persons the hackers are stealing the complete details of the person in it. In this process, these are taken from the companies or industries of the United States that it can breach the mile steel web which is more critical or difficult for all the companies or the economy of the nation (Bawany, 2017).
Some of the new hackers are mainly trickled in the official security if the homes that are used in the particular security if the information or the data with the operators of the pipelines in the United States. In many, of cases, the laws of the enforcement are used in the entire process of the systems of it. The systems of the transmission process may take for the gas if the natural and for the power generation that it is one of the targets of hacking in the country or all over the world (Boyd, 2017).
Many of the companies of the gas are taken up the security in the specific format or in the good way thrash it has to be clearer. Overall the readiness of the cyber for all the sectors is one of the black boxes to those is charged in it. In this case, the investigation of the energy will be found. All the authorities of the resources are considered in the companies in the gas pipeline lines and they have to estimate the complete process in the natural gas. To produce all the powers in an organization the coal had supplied in the systems of the process (Zanin, 2018).
Bawany, N., Shamsi, J., & Salah, K. (2017). DDoS Attack Detection and Mitigation Using SDN: Methods, Practices, and Solutions. Arabian Journal for Science & Engineering (Springer Science & Business Media B.V. ), 42(2), 425441. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-017-2414-5
Boyd, C., Cremers, C., Feltz, M., Paterson, K., Poettering, B., & Stebila, D. (2017). ASICS: authenticated key exchange security incorporating certification systems. International Journal of Information Security, 16(2), 151171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10207-015-0312-y
Zanin, M., Sun, X., & Wandelt, S. (2018). Studying the Topology of Transportation Systems through Complex Networks: Handle with Care. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 117. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3156137
The threat is a possible risk or danger that exploits the weakness or vulnerability of the system, therefore, causing harm. Threats can be intentional or accidental, intentional is where criminal organization interfere with the system while accidental occurs as a result of computer malfunctioning (Min, Chai, & Han, 2015). Cybersecurity affects the economy negatively hindering its growth. However, the government needs to implement better measures that will help curb these behaviors. Through cybersecurity threats organizations have experienced continuous losses as a result of hacking thus affecting the growth and expansion. As a result of this, the level of unemployment among the youths increases thereby, hindering the growth of the economy.
Organizations that have experienced cyber-attacks have lost crucial information which could be helpful to make better decisions for the improvement of the organization, through these attacks, organizations are unable to improve, therefore, unable to perform well in the economy (Sobczak, Northey, & Behr, 2019). Through introducing the strategy of diversity and commonality the organizations are in a better position to mitigate such threats. Through this strategy, organizations are in a position to spread the risk of attack leading to a lower impact of such cybersecurity attacks.
Diversity and commonality offers the organization multiple ways of thinking thus allowing them to stay one step ahead of the attackers (Carr, 2016). Through this, the organization will be in a position to reduce the frequency and severity of threats in case they occur in an organization. In the current economy where cybersecurity threats are increasing organizations should have a wide range of security skills on their team to deal with such attacks. The main reason for the increased cyber-attacks in the economy is the growth of technology. To minimize such attacks organizations should embrace techniques such as cryptographic techniques, end to end authentications and implementing a firewall to prevent the system from being attacked by hackers.
Carr, M. (2016). Public-private partnerships in national cyber-security strategies. International Affairs, 92(1), 43-62.
Min, K. S., Chai, S. W., & Han, M. (2015). An international comparative study on cybersecurity strategy. International Journal of Security and Its Applications, 9(2), 13-20.
Sobczak, B., Northey, H., & Behr, P. (2019). SECURITY: Cyber raises threats against America’s energy backbone. Retrieved 5 November 2019, from https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060054924