Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion

Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion Discussion Forum 8In this discussion, you will report on the interpretation of a research findings. This will include appraisal of the following: a) limitations and strengths of the study variable(s), b)hypothesis(es)/research questions, c) theoretical framework, d) design, e) sample, Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion f) data collection procedures, and g) data analysis. In addition, this section includes h)generalizations, i)conclusions, and j)recommendations for future research. 1. Review and evaluate the “Discussion” section of one of the articles in the attachement) and discuss whether the strength of the evidence supports a change in current practice. Post your opinion in the discussion forum. Make sure you review the grading rubric. The elements on the rubric will inform your grade for the assignment. 2. What is your cosmic question? research_article_01_1_.pdf research_article_02.pdf research_article_04.pdf research_article_10.pdf THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CLINICAL TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS NURSING FACULTY DIANNE E. ALLEN, RN, MSC,? JENNY PLOEG, RN, PHD,† SHARON KAASALAINEN, RN, PHD† IN AND Nursing faculty play an important role in facilitating nursing student learning and shaping student experience in the clinical setting. Emotional intelligence (EI) in clinical nursing faculty may be one avenue to develop teaching effectiveness. This study investigated the relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness of nursing faculty in an undergraduate nursing program. Using a crosssectional correlation design, data were collected from a convenience sample of nursing faculty (N = 47) using the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (EQ-i:S), the Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI) and a demographic data page. The results indicated a statistically significant positive relationship between the EQ-i:S and the NCTEI total scores (rs = .599, P b .01) and between many subscales of these tools. These findings contribute new knowledge to nursing education, including the following: (a) a significant relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness exists, (b) faculty exhibit effective overall EI functioning with room to enhance competencies, and (c) faculty members see themselves as effective in their clinical teaching. Implications for clinical teaching practice include the need for faculty development and strengthening the faculty–student relationship. Possibilities for future research are discussed. (Index words: Emotional intelligence; Clinical teaching effectiveness; Nursing faculty; Nursing students; Nursing leadership) J Prof Nurs 28:231–240, 2012. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. T HE EVOLUTION OF nursing practice has influenced the demand for independent nurses who can function in roles that require advanced skills in communication, leadership, and self-knowledge (Löfmark & Thorell-Ekstrand, 2004). Yet, employers often claim that graduating nursing students lack the competencies needed to successfully adapt as graduate nurses (Bellack, 1999). Emotional intelligence (EI), which includes skills identified by Löfmark and Thorell-Ekstrand, as above, is purported to be an important aspect of nursing education that may help to develop such leaders (Benson, Ploeg, & Brown, 2010; Brewer & Cadman, 2000; Bulmer Smith, Profetto-McGrath, & Cummings, 2009; Feather, 2009; ?Nursing Faculty, Conestoga College, Kitchener ON, Canada †Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Kitchener ON, Canada. Address correspondence to Dianne Allen: Conestoga College, 299 Doon Valley Drive, Kitchener ON, Canada N2G 4M4. E-mail: 8755-7223/11/$ – see front matter Freshwater & Stickley, 2004; Herbert & Edgar, 2004; Rochester, Kilstoff, & Scott, 2005). EI has been defined as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (Bar-On 2002b. p. 1). Described by Bar-On (2002a) as a collection of emotional and social competencies, EI helps to determine a person’s ability to adapt within an environment of interactions with one’s self and with others. EI is associated with workplace effectiveness and success, particularly in business and organizational leadership (Downey, Papageorgiou, & Stough, 2006; Gardner & Stough, 2002; Kerr, Garvin, Heaton, & Boyle, 2006; Rosete & Ciarrochi, 2005; Stone, Parker, & Wood, 2005). Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion Such leadership is required by nursing faculty to facilitate nursing student learning in the clinical setting. Faculty’s flexibility, quality of discourse, and genuine concern for the student, all qualities evident in emotionally intelligent leaders, were identified by students as important for positive learning outcomes (Makarem, Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 28, No. 4 (July–August), 2012: pp 231–240 © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 231 doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2011.11.018 Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 232 ALLEN ET AL Dumit, Adra, & Kassak, 2001). Juggling the responsibilities of nursing student education while ensuring patient safety requires well-developed teaching skills (AllisonJones & Hirt, 2004). EI could have implications for clinical nursing education because its acquisition could facilitate the distinct skills that constitute effectiveness of clinical teaching. Although clinical nursing faculty play a critical role in facilitating student learning during clinical learning, little is known about faculty’s EI or the relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness. This article reports on a study that investigated the relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness of nursing faculty in an undergraduate nursing program. Literature Review Emotional Intelligence The idea of emotions as a form of intelligence, distinct from traditional cognitive intelligence, dates back to Thorndike (1920). He believed that standard intelligence tests such as the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test measured only abstract intelligence and that social intelligence was a separate entity. Gardner (1983) agreed that intelligence existed beyond a single form and proposed a theory of multiple intelligences, including interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. Armstrong (1993) added that context, task, and demands of life also determined intelligence. For example, a nurse clinician might be brilliant in providing education to the family of a critically ill patient yet treat an inexperienced student nurse with little compassion. This highlights one context where IQ plays a minimal role and EI a larger one. Although IQ is important, it has been argued that EI plays a larger role in career success and the ability to form successful relationships (Stone et al., 2005). There are two groups of EI conceptual models: ability models and mixed models. In ability models, the expression, regulation, and deployment of emotions arise from social and cognitive functions (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Mixed models suggest that EI is a mixture of emotionrelated competencies, personality traits, and character (BarOn, 1997, 2000, 2002a, 2005; Goleman, 1995). For this study, we chose to use the mixed model of EI, as this model aligned more closely to the characteristics valued in the nursing profession. Of the mixed models, the Bar-On Model of Emotional–Social Intelligence provided the most evidence of a comprehensive application of EI that appeared to be robust and valid. Bar-On’s model is composed of five major components, further subdivided into 15 subcomponents that determine emotional, social, and psychological success. The five components include intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general mood. Of late, EI has received increased attention in business, education, and more recently, nursing. Business and organizational research have found that the higher the level of EI, the greater the person’s emotional and social function, organizational effectiveness, and capacity to self-actualize and be successful (Downey et al., 2006; Gardner & Stough, 2002; Kerr et al., 2006; Rosete & Ciarrochi, 2005; Stone et al., 2005).Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion Educational disciplines have studied the importance of EI in students and argue for blending emotional and social skills into curricula to enhance the development of future leaders (Benson et al., 2010; Carrothers, Gregory, & Gallagher, 2000; Elam, Stratton, & Andrykowski, 2001; Esmond-Kiger, Tucker, & Yost, 2006; Rochester et al., 2005). Entrance-level medical students’ emotions and empathic abilities were moderately correlated with their abilities to recognize, discriminate, and regulate their moods (Elam et al., 2001). These authors suggested that monitoring and improving EI in medical students could assist the development of more effective physicians. Benson et al. (2010) found that nursing students had an adequate and effective EI function and suggested that further research is required to understand the role of EI in nursing education. Rochester et al. found that successful nursing graduates contributed EI competencies to difficult or stressful situations. It has been suggested that faculty must play a role in the development of these EI competencies in students (Benson et al., 2010; Rochester et al., 2005). With mounting evidence regarding the value of EI, nursing has also begun to study its significance (Budnik, 2003; Farmer, 2004; Molter, 2001; Quoidbach & Hansenne, 2009; Young-Ritchie, Spence Laschinger, & Wong, 2009). Nurses must work effectively with human emotions, and they must demonstrate caring behaviors, both identified as integral components of EI. In a study of burnout and EI, Budnik found significant relationships between emotional exhaustion, depersonalization of career intent, and burnout as predictors of EI and suggested that emotionally competent nurses who were aware of self-care could actively work to reduce or eliminate burnout. Farmer investigated the relationship of EI to burnout and job satisfaction in early nursing practice and found that participants with a higher level of EI had lower levels of depersonalization and higher levels of personal accomplishment. In a study of the impact of trait EI on nursing team performance, health care quality was positively correlated with emotion regulation, which was positively correlated with group cohesiveness (Quoidbach & Hansenne, 2009). Regarding nursing leadership and EI, Molter (2001) compared nurse leaders’ perceptions of the role of emotions in their leadership with the Ability Model of EI as proposed by Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2000). Molter found that all of the model’s EI abilities were reflected in the participants’ stories. In addition, of the 26 nursing leader participants, all but one demonstrated moderate to enhanced EI. In a study that tested a model to explore the relationships among emotionally intelligent leadership, workplace empowerment, and organizational commitment, Young-Ritchie et al. (2009) reported that perceived emotionally intelligent leadership behaviors had a strong effect on emergency nurses’ feelings of empowerment, which had a strong effect on organizational commitment. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CLINICAL TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS Nursing educators likewise must be committed to demonstrating leadership qualities for the benefit of nursing students, clients, and the clinical staff with whom their students work and from whom students learn. Emerging evidence suggests that EI competence is important for nursing students to become competent practitioners and leaders (Benson et al., 2010; Rochester et al., 2005; Wilson & Carryer, 2008). The clinical setting can provide an important forum for nursing faculty to facilitate the development of EI among students. Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion However, to enhance the development of EI, clinical faculty would need well-developed EI competencies themselves, but little research has been done in this area. Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Although little theoretical literature pertaining to clinical teaching effectiveness exists, Knox and Mogan have conducted the most comprehensive work in this area (Knox & Mogan 1985; Mogan & Knox, 1983, 1987). Knox and Mogan defined effective clinical teaching as “actions, activities, and verbalizations of the clinical instructor, which facilitate learning in the clinical area,” a definition that was cited from O’Shea and Parsons (1979, p. 26). Knox and Mogan identified five categories of teaching effectiveness: teaching ability, nursing competence, evaluation, interpersonal relationship, and personality trait. Effective clinical teaching is associated with enhanced student learning (Knox & Mogan, 1985). The Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI) was designed by Knox and Mogan to determine the degree to which respondents felt that clinical nursing faculty demonstrated effective teaching characteristics. Mogan and Knox (1987) investigated best and worst teachers by considering both teacher and student perceptions. They found that both groups agreed that “being a good role model” was the most important characteristic differentiating the good from the less desirable clinical teacher and that “enjoys nursing,” “enjoys teaching,” and “is approachable” were also highly rated. This study was replicated a number of times (Kotzabassaki et al., 1997; Lee, Cholowski, & Williams, 2002; Nehring, 1990). Although we found no theoretical literature linking EI and clinical teaching effectiveness, literature linking EI to effective leadership in career success was identified (Downey et al., 2006; Gardner & Stough, 2002; Stone et al., 2005; Young-Ritchie et al., 2009). Downey et al. found that high levels of EI and intuition were more likely in female organizational managers that used a transformational leadership style, whereas Gardner and Stough noted a negative relationship between laissez faire leadership and EI. In a study of school principals and vice principals, the total EI score was a significant predictor of successful leadership, with the most effective leaders having a combination of task- and relationship-oriented skills (Stone et al., 2005). Nursing has also begun to recognize the role of EI in effective leadership. VitelloCiccui (2001) found that nursing leaders with high EI used more transformational leadership skills. More 233 recently, emergency room nurses reported that their supervisors’ leadership behaviors that are consistent with EI strongly influenced their feelings of empowerment (Young-Ritchie et al., 2009). The qualities of effective leadership reported in the literature are similar to the effectiveness traits desired for clinical nursing faculty. For several decades, researchers have explored clinical teaching effectiveness of nursing faculty with recommendations for staff development, selfevaluation, increased flexibility, and modifications of behaviors to attain effective clinical teaching, but there is limited research of how faculty would implement these behavioral changes. Allison-Jones and Hirt (2004) suggested that patient safety and the preparation of students for the role of professional nurse require special and distinct teaching skills that are not innate but developed over time and with experience. Nursing faculty must take responsibility to identify and apply strategies for development of these clinical teaching skills, but there is little research about how to assist them. EI may provide one vehicle to promote the development of effective clinical teaching skills among nursing faculty because emotional and social competencies can be learned and improved with appropriate interventions (Bar-On, 2002a; Mayer, 1999). In turn, the development of these competencies in faculty may enhance the development of EI skills in nursing students, thereby enhancing their ability to function effectively as graduate nurses and as nurse leaders. Examination of this relationship could guide faculty development and inform nursing education.Stratford Nursing NSG 410 Competencies of Students Role Modeling Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON However, the relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness is unclear. Purpose The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness of nursing faculty in a bachelor of science in nursing (BScN) program. Specifically, this study explored (a) the EI scores, (b) the clinical teaching effectiveness scores, (c) the relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness scores, and (d) the relationship between EI scores and the demographic variables of age, years of clinical nursing, years of clinical teaching, level of education, and employment status of clinical nursing faculty. Method Design and Sample A cross-sectional survey design was used, and although it cannot establish causation between two variables, it is a relatively feasible way to determine association in a preliminary exploration such as this (Streiner & Norman, 1998). A convenience sample was drawn from nursing faculty in an undergraduate nursing program that used a small group, problem-based, self-directed learning approach. The target population included all full- and part-time clinical nursing faculty who taught in a second- or third-year clinical course and accompanied their students into the clinical setting. The sample size was calculated to detect a correlation (effect size) of .40 Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 234 ALLEN ET AL between the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (EQ-i:S) and Nursing Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument (NCTEI) scores with a significance level of ? = .05 and power of 0.80. A minimum sample size of 46 participants was required. Of the 91 invited clinical nursing faculty members, 47 (52%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Measures Emotional Intelligence. EI was assessed in clinical nursing faculty using the self-report BarOn EQ-i:S (BarOn, 2002a). This instrument is composed of 51 items in the form of short sentences. Respondents rated each statement from 1 (very seldom or not true of me) to 5 (very often or true of me). Items were tallied for a total EQ score and seven subscale scores: (a) intrapersonal (i.e., self-awareness and self-expression abilities); (b) interpersonal (i.e., social awareness, awareness of others’ feelings or cooperative relationship building); (c) stress management (i.e., capacity to manage and regulate emotions); (d) adaptability (i.e., situational coping, flexibility and problem solving requisite for managing change); (e) general mood (i.e., emotional competence needed to achieve one’s goals); (f) inconsistency index; and (g) Positive Impression (PI) Scale, both validity indicator scales. Raw scores were transformed to standard scores to allow for comparison. BarOn EQ-i:S uses normative comparisons by gender and age based on a population of 2,000 adults with a normative mean standard score of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (Bar-On, 2002a). Standard scores within one standard deviation of the normative sample mean fall within effective functioning and suggest some areas of strength and some areas that can be developed. Enhanced skills are generally indicated by scores of greater than 115 (one standard deviation or more above the mean) and indicate that the skills for that particular scale are well developed. Conversely, areas for enrichment are indicated by scores of less than 85 (one standard deviation or more below the mean) and indicate that the skills identified for that scale are significantly lacking (Bar-On, 2002a).The BarOn EQ-i:S was developed through modification of the longer Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I), an instrument found to be reliable and valid (Bar-On, 2002a). Internal consistency coefficients of the BarOn EQ-i:S ranged from .76 to .93 , except for the PI Scale, which ranged from .51 to .76 (BarOn, 2002a). Test–retest reliability was examined over a 6month period in a sample of 352 adults and ranged from .46 to .80 (Bar-On, 2002a). Construct validity was based on the correlation between BarOn EQ-i:S and BarOn EQI. Factor analysis of the BarOn EQ-i:S scales indicated that all correlations were statistically significant (P b .05; BarOn, 2002a). Overlapping scale components were highly correlated, ranging from ? =.73 to .96 for males and from ? =.75 to .97 for females (Bar-On, 1997). Two of the EQ-i: S scales function as validity indicators. The inconsistency index contains two pairs of items in each of the five main scales and evaluates the inconsistency in responses to items with similar content, whereas the PI Scale detects inflated positive … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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