Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay

Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Question Description I’m studying and need help with a Social Science question to help me learn. The research proposal need help with this restructure of the viable sources and new sources. the project needs to be restructured fully with additional resources and about a page to add. The requirements which the paper should be edited according to: Review the rubric and consider what you can do to raise your score to the next level. This is also the time to edit for clarity and organization, adapting the required format to meet your personal writing style. All parts should be in your paper and the organization (IMRAD) may not vary from one student to another (see the suggested outline). A media analysis, with a clear description of methods and discussion of data collected, is expected. Citations to the methods text are expected here. The literature review should include references to social construction research (the books assigned for class) and the methods used to study crime in the media. In short, citations to books and articles read for this class are expected. Additional library research is also required to connect your results to previous research. example in the link. It also needs to be rephrased but I have already put it through Resoomer and did it – I will send the file to make your work easier. It may seem long for pages, but it is quite easy ?? There is a high probability of time extension, I am working on it now :)Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay. Unformatted Attachment Preview Media and Crime in the U.S. 2 3 Media and Crime in the U.S. Yvonne Jewkes University of Brighton Travis Linnemann Eastern Kentucky University 4 FOR INFORMATION: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-mail: SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 3 Church Street #10-04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Jewkes, Yvonne, author. | Linnemann, Travis, author. Title: Media and crime in the U.S. / Yvonne Jewkes, University of Brighton, Travis Linnemann, Eastern Kentucky University. Description: Thousand Oaks : Sage, [2018] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017009813 | ISBN 9781483373904 (pbk. : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Mass media and crime—United States. | Mass media and criminal justice—United States. | Crime in mass media. Classification: LCC P96.C742 U639 2018 | DDC 364.0973—dc23 LC record available at This book is printed on acid-free paper. Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Miller Editorial Assistant: Jennifer Rubio Content Development Editor: Laura Kirkhuff Marketing Manager: Amy Lammers Copy Editor: Rachel Keith Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd. Proofreader: Dennis W. Webb 5 Indexer: Jean Casalegno Cover Designer: Scott Van Atta 6 Brief Contents 1. Acknowledgments 2. Introduction 3. Chapter 1 Theorizing Media and Crime 4. Chapter 2 The Construction of Crime News 5. Chapter 3 Media and Moral Panics 6. Chapter 4 Media Constructions of Children: “Evil Monsters” and “Tragic Victims” 7. Chapter 5 Media Misogyny: Monstrous Women 8. Chapter 6 The Police Image and Policing the Image 9. Chapter 7 Crime Movies and Prison Films 10. Chapter 8 Crime and the Surveillance Culture 11. Chapter 9 The Role of the Internet in Crime and Deviance 12. Chapter 10 (Re)Conceptualizing the Relationship Between Media and Crime 13. Glossary 14. References 15. Index 16. About the Authors 7 Detailed Contents Acknowledgments Introduction Chapter 1 Theorizing Media and Crime • Overview • Key Terms Media “Effects” Mass Society Theory Behaviorism and Positivism The Legacy of Effects Research Strain Theory and Anomie Marxism, Critical Criminology, and the Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay “Dominant Ideology” Approach The Legacy of Marxism: Critical Criminology and Corporate Crime Pluralism, Competition, and Ideological Struggle Realism and Reception Analysis Late Modernity and Postmodernism Cultural Criminology • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 2 The Construction of Crime News • Overview • Key Terms News Values for a New Millennium Threshold Predictability Simplification Individualism Risk Sex Celebrity or High-Status Persons Proximity Violence or Conflict Visual Spectacle and Graphic Imagery Children Conservative Ideology and Political Diversion Two Examples of Newsworthy Stories Par Excellence The Murder of the Clutter Family and Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood 8 Anders Behring Breivik and the Spree Killing of 77 People in Norway News Production and Consumption in a Digital Global Marketplace: The Rise of the Citizen Journalist News Values and Crime News Production: Some Concluding Thoughts • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 3 Media and Moral Panics • Overview • Key Terms The Background of the Moral Panic Model How the Mass Media Turn the Ordinary Into the Extraordinary The Role of the Authorities in the Deviancy Amplification Process Defining Moral Boundaries and Creating Consensus Rapid Social Change—Risk Youth Problems With the Moral Panic Model A Problem With “Deviance” A Problem With “Morality” Problems With “Youth” and “Style” A Problem With “Risk” A Problem of “Source” A Problem With “Audience” The Longevity and Legacy of the Moral Panic Model: Some Concluding Thoughts • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 4 Media Constructions of Children: “Evil Monsters” and “Tragic Victims” • Overview • Key Terms Children as “Evil Monsters” Children as “Tragic Victims” Guilt, Collusion, and Voyeurism Moral Panics and the Revival of “Community”: Some Concluding Thoughts • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 5 Media Misogyny: Monstrous Women • Overview • Key Terms 9 Psychoanalytic Perspectives Feminist Perspectives Sexuality and Sexual Deviance Physical Attractiveness Bad Wives Bad Mothers Mythical Monsters Mad Cows Evil Manipulators Non-agents Honorable Fathers Versus Monstrous Mothers: Some Concluding Thoughts • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 6 The Police Image and Policing the Image • Overview • Key Terms The Mass Media and Fear of Crime The Police Image: Television and Film Cops and Reality TV Policing and Social Media Image Management • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 7 Crime Movies and Prison Films • Overview • Key Terms The Appeal of Crime Movies The Crime Movie: Masculinity, Autonomy, the City The “Prison Film” The Prison Film and the Power to Reform? The Documentary Documentary as Ethnography The Remake The Taking of Pelham One Two Three and The Taking of Pelham 123 Discussion Concluding Thoughts • Summary • Study Questions 10 • Further Reading Chapter 8 Crime and the Surveillance Culture • Overview • Key Terms The NSA and a New Age of Surveillance Panopticism The Surveillant Assemblage Control of the Body Governance and Governmentality Security and “Cybersurveillance” Profit Voyeurism and Entertainment From the Panopticon to Surveillant Assemblage and Back Again “Big Brother” or “Brave New World”? Some Concluding Thoughts • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 9 The Role of the Internet in Crime and Deviance •Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay Overview • Key Terms Redefining Deviance and Democratization: Developing Nations and the Case of China Cyberwarfare and Cyberterrorism “Ordinary” Cybercrimes Electronic Theft and Abuse of Intellectual Property Rights Hate Crime Invasion of Privacy, Defamation, and Identity Theft eBay Fraud Hacking and Loss of Sensitive Data Child Pornography and Online Grooming Childhood, Cyberspace, and Social Retreat Concluding Thoughts • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Chapter 10 (Re)Conceptualizing the Relationship Between Media and Crime • Overview • Key Terms Doing Media-Crime Research The Importance of the Visual Taking Media-Crime Research Seriously 11 Stigmatization, Sentimentalization, and Sanctification: The “Othering” of Victims and Offenders • Summary • Study Questions • Further Reading Glossary References Index About the Authors 12 13 Acknowledgments SAGE would like to thank the following reviewers whose input helped shape this book: Bond Benton, State University of New York at Fredonia Kevin Drakulich, Northeastern University Brooke Gialopsos, Mount St. Joseph University Caryn Horwitz, Miami Dade College Reginia Judge, Montclair State University Stephanie Karas, University of Houston–Downtown Larry Karson, University of Houston–Downtown Kristin Kenneavy, Ramapo College of New Jersey Emily Lenning, Fayetteville State University Jaimee Limmer, Northern Arizona University Andrew C. Michaud, California State University, Sacramento Brooke Miller, University of North Texas Kasey Carmile Ragan, University of California, Irvine Richard P. Wiebe, Fitchburg State University Richard Wormser, University of New Haven, Fordham University James L. Wright, Dalton State College 14 Introduction As in so many other areas of social, economic, and political life, it may be true that the United States is exceptional when it comes to the ways in which it communicates about crime, violence, and disorder. A relentless fascination with serial killers, monstrous women, and youth gone mad is enacted across an expansive cultural register. But despite a long, dubious history, crime and media in the U.S. context arguably came into its own with a car chase broadcast live on national television on Friday, June 17, 1994. That morning, Los Angeles Police Department detectives contacted an elite Hollywood attorney named Robert Shapiro to advise him that one of his clients, O. J. Simpson, was wanted for questioning in the murders of his wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ronald Goldman. Later that day, when Simpson failed to surrender to police as arranged by Shapiro, a manhunt ensued. By 5 p.m., local news stations were live-broadcasting the parade of highway patrol vehicles tailing Simpson’s white Ford Bronco down stretches of California highway as crowds of onlookers gathered on roadsides and overpasses. The now-infamous chase served as the opening scene in a spectacular trial that unfolded over the next year and a half, captivating spectators worldwide and laying bare the many limitations of American criminal justice. Billed by many as the “trial of the century,” the criminal prosecution and eventual exoneration of the former NFL star undoubtedly served as a blueprint for the many televised criminal trials and crime infotainment programs that have followed. However, we should be careful to note that while the Simpson case unfolded on television in a unique, perhaps unheralded fashion, the American public has long been captivated by the lurid mysteries of violent crime. Even the moniker “trial of the century” predates broadcast television by nearly five decades.Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay From the case of two narcissistic socialites, Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb, who aimed to commit and get away with the “perfect murder,” to the trials of two Italian-born anarchists, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, who were executed in 1927 for the supposedly politically inspired murders of two company guards, the American cultural landscape has long been scarred by highprofile crimes and their attendant courtroom spectacles. Photo I.1 The chase for OJ Simpson and his infamous white Ford Bronco. ZUMA Press, Inc./Alamy Stock Photo 15 Today, when surveying the U.S. media landscape, it is as though one horrific crime bleeds into the next. In this way, we might say that representations of crime in the U.S. take the shape of what the late cultural theorist Raymond Williams called flow. In a continuous stream of mundane and spectacular crime stories— from newspaper accounts of local arrests, nightly news broadcasts of the day’s “top stories,” poli ce procedurals “ripped from the headlines,” and big-budget Hollywood films to social media feeds and stories shared between friends—crime and its mediated representations perpetually circulate in the whirring background of everyday life. Even today we can trace the cultural reverberations of the Simpson case in the FX miniseries The People v. OJ Simpson: An American Crime Story and a multipart installment of the popular ESPN documentary film series 30 for 30 focusing on the intersection of celebrity, sport, and crime. In fact, if we consider that Robert Kardashian gained national prominence as Simpson’s attorney, we might say that his daughters’ considerable fame flows directly from the notorious trial. While always in the background, the flow of mediated crime stories also has power to engage the public in new, exciting, and sometimes terrifying ways. For instance, the two bombs that exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, exposed the American public’s relationship with crime and the media in many of the same ways the chase of O. J. Simpson’s Bronco had nearly two decades before. Yet the Boston Marathon also starkly revealed how user-generated content and social media have altered the ways in which crime stories are communicated. The pressure cooker bombs, loaded with gunpowder, nails, and ball bearings and placed in nylon backpacks, were left on the street near the end of the 23-mile route amidst the large crowds of onlookers there to cheer on some 23,000 runners. Claiming the lives of three innocent bystanders and wounding nearly 200 people in total, the explosions set off a spectacular manhunt that stretched across Boston’s streets and social media for weeks and a criminal trial that would not conclude for another two years (in 2016, all of this reemerged in the form of a big-budget Hollywood film starring Mark Wahlberg). The following day, with no group claiming responsibility, FBI investigators announced that they were considering a wide range of suspects. So far, regrettably, so familiar. Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay. But as news emerged of CCTV (closed-circuit television) footage taken from a department store located near the scene of the second blast, showing a potential suspect carrying and possibly dropping a black backpack, a brigade of amateur Internet detectives helped to crowdsource the investigation. While police had the benefit of sophisticated facial recognition technology, members of the public relied largely upon instinct and perhaps a misplaced sense of civic duty. One group posted a 57-picture array on the website focusing on people wearing black backpacks. Likewise, on the social media site Reddit, users created more than 100 threads to host images captured by CCTV or on mobile phones and a dedicated subreddit, r/findbostonbombers, to assist the manhunt. As a Boston police commissioner announced that, at the time of the bombings, “this was probably one of the most photographed areas in the entire country,” the police and hundreds of vigilante viewers were simultaneously combing through vast numbers of photos and video clips of the bomb scene, before and after the explosions. Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay. Three days after the bombings, the FBI held a press conference showing photographs and security images of two suspects watching the marathon, each wearing a large, dark-colored backpack. Perhaps even more damning, still and video footage showed that the suspects, rather than fleeing after the blasts like the rest of 16 the terrified bystanders, remained at the scene to survey the carnage before calmly walking away. In response to the news conference, additional photographs and video from mobile phones were provided by the public, and a wounded victim who lost both of his legs in the bombings gave a detailed description of one of the bombers to investigators, stating that he saw him place a backpack beside him approximately two and a half minutes prior to the explosion. Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism EssayThe suspects were soon identified as Chechen-born brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, aged 19, and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, aged 26. Amidst feverish speculation, more details emerged of the events following the explosions. Shortly after the young men walked away from the scene of their destruction, they killed an MIT policeman, carjacked an SUV, and initiated an exchange of gunfire with the police, during which an officer was injured but survived with severe blood loss. Tamerlan was shot several times in the crossfire, and his brother subsequently ran him over with the stolen SUV as he escaped. He was pronounced dead at the scene. Four days after the bombing on April 19, police found Dzhokhar hiding inside a boat in a backyard in nearby Watertown. Despite his being wounded and unarmed, the police opened fire on the figure beneath the boat’s tarpaulin cover, only ceasing fire when ordered to do so by a senior officer. At this point, a crowd had gathered and were snapping photos and taking video footage of the scene. As Dzhokhar climbed out of the boat and was arrested, a police photographer took several images, which he subsequently offered to Boston magazine. His motive was reported to be that he wanted to show the real story of what happened and to counter the “fluffed and buffed” rock star image used of Dzhokhar on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine ( Of course, images are endlessly interpretable, and many felt that the police officer’s photographs showed Dzhokhar in an equally positive light —vulnerable and heroic. The photographer was subsequently suspended from the police and ordered not to talk to the media. The Boston Marathon bombing raises many points of interest from a criminological and legal perspective, not least being whether the federal death penalty would be applied. Thirty charges were brought against Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (including using a weapon of mass destruction), more than half of which carry the death penalty. The case also Criminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay. ed the question of where execution would be administered, given that Massachusetts had abolished the death penalty in 1984. But from a media-criminology perspective, it is an especially interesting case because of the open access afforded journalists. First, there was the excited amateur sleuthing that took place on social networking sites and then was faithfully reported in the world’s media. This quickly tipped over into more dangerous territory with several “suspects” being incorrectly identified and libeled online and in the traditional media. One of the early misidentifications was of a 22-year-old student who had gone missing a month before, having suspending his studies while suffering from severe depression. Users of social media pinpointed this individual as the “standout suspect,” a claim that was proved wrong—but only after the young man’s family had endured several distressing days of speculation and accusation. On April 23, four days after Dzhokhar’s capture, the missing student’s body was found in a nearby river and identified through dental records. Although the cause of death wasn’t immediately known, foul play was not suspected. Once the brothers had been correctly identified from very clear security camera footage taken the day of the race, there simply was not enough time for the police to control the public’s access to their final confrontation with the Tsarnaevs. Social media quickly became inundated with news of developments as they were happening, as the Chicago Tribune reported on April 19, 2013: 17 It was all happening in a small town near Boston on Friday evening, but social media was the place to be as police in Watertown, Mass., closed in on and then arrested Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. @BostonGlobe: Dzhokhar Tsarnaev IN CUSTODY! @mayortommenino: “We got him” @SeanKellyTV: Loud applause at end of Franklin Street as SWAT walks out to crowd . . . UPDATE: Boston Police are asking social media users not to post information they hear on police frequencies/scanner channels. With the older Tsarnaev dead and the other in custody, police turned toward the brothers’ online identities— Facebook and vKontakte (a Russian version of Facebook) pages, Twitter accounts, and YouTube histories— which revealed much about their personalities, histories, and motivations for such a terrible crime. The fact that 19-year-old Dzhokhar seemed fairly ordinary in relation to his older, radicalized brother did little to dampen the furor of public outrage and condemnation. Controversies continued to rage after Dzhokhar was captured, from the FBI’s denial of his Miranda rights during questioning to debates about whether, despite being an American citizen, he should be tried as an unlawful enemy combatant, preventing him from any legal counsel. In the end, he was granted a defense attorney, but special administrative measures were imposed, leaving him … Purchase answer to see full attachmenCriminology Relevance of Media and Racism Essay. 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