Nursing Research Process Components Essay

Nursing Research Process Components Essay Nursing Research Process Components Essay Good research always starts with prior research for possible topic ideas, as well as finding academic journals that deal with subject. If your discipline is child care, it’s advisable to research works by other writers to understand challenges and relevant issues before choosing researchable topics in nursing that deal with young patients. This step ensures that student finds related sources and chooses slightly different approach to make assignment original.Nursing Research Process Components Essay Permalink: nursing-research…components-essay / ? Next step is research paper introduction, which has to have an interesting hook that either makes solid statement or provides an arguable argumentation. If writing on hot controversial topic, make a claim that is later developed in suitable thesis statement. Body paragraphs should avoid using too many ideas because such approach only confuses target audience and basically makes conclusion part impossible to complete. As for final paragraph, it has to make a call to action to provide personal recommendations or analysis of information processed. Remember that if you used any statistics or comparison data in nursing research paper topic, it is necessary to include full listing in Appendix or notes, if applicable.Nursing Research Process Components Essay The essence of this essay is to highlight in detail the similarities and dissimilarities between quantitative and qualitative research method. According to Tingen et al. (2009) research has an enormous impact on the current and future growth of the nursingprofession;itgeneratesnewknowledgethatimprovesnursingpractice, which is in line with the initiative “improving general practice: A call to action” (NHS, 2014). This essay will be written considering the steps, components and paradigm of research process (Morgan, 2007). According toField(2011), themajor purpose ofresearch isto generatenew knowledge, broaden and validate existing knowledge in order to improve practice. As stated in the report of nursing committee (Briggs report), nursing practice should be evidenced-basedsoastoimprovethequalityofcareoftheirpatientsandthe general population (ICN, 2009). Research method refers to all procedures used by a researcher ina research process.It comprises of both the quantitativeand qualitative method (Kathari, 2004). A quantitative research is a systematic approach used to quantify variables (Wayne, 2010). Groove (2005) also defined a quantitative research as a systematic, structured and formal process that uses statistical approach in the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.Nursing Research Process Components Essay Contrarily, Carter and Thomas (2005) defined a qualitative research as a systematic but unstructured method that uses narrative/descriptive approach in the collection, analysis,interpretationandpresentationofdata.Itisalsoreferredtoaprimary explorative research that is used to gain understanding of an underlying opinion, idea and perception, which sets a hypothesis for a potential quantitative study (Wyse, 2011). Irrespective of the difference in the meaning of a quantitative and qualitativeresearch,theyarebothresearchmethodsthatfollowastep-by-step process; considering all the components of a research process such as the methodologies and designssystematically. Thiscorrespondswith thedefinition of research as a systematic and rigorous process (Kaplain, 2015). A quantitative research usesaconvergent/deductivereasoning.Itis frequently referred as “top-bottom” approach becauseit works on a hypothesis; it analyzes a broadinterestuntilitisnarrowedtoaconclusion(Gabriel,2013).Aquantitative research is also known as a “benchop science” simply because it uses experiments to explain its hypothesis showing relationship between an independent (cause) and a dependent (effect) variable (Shields andAlison, 2005). In contrast to this, a qualitative research uses a divergent/inductive reasoning; it generates a new theory for a quantitative research to experiment on and explores phenomena. This method is alsoknownas a“bottom-top” approachbecause itbegins withan observation, develops a pattern, creates a hypothesis to support its theory and draws a conclusion based on multiple ideas. It explains the meaning of variables rather than showing their relationship (Sanders et al., 2007). However from a different point of view,Thomas andJames (2006)isof theopinionthat theroleof aquantitative research is not just centred on experimenting a theory developed by a qualitative research rather it could also develop its theory from the researchers predictions.Nursing Research Process Components Essay Truncellito(2007)emphasizesontheimportanceofepistemology(existenceof knowledge) and ontology (existence of truth/reality) on the paradigm of a research. It consists of positivism and interpretism. A quantitative research is based on positivism; it is objective in nature as it generates knowledge and truth from single idea and prediction from the researcher, empirical confirmation and experimentation. On the other hand, a qualitative research is based on interpretism; it is subjective in nature drawing its knowledge from interpreting multiple views of people’s experiences, behaviour and understanding of their natural environment with little or no prediction from the researcher (Myres, 2008; Collins, 2010). Literature review is a very important component of a research process because it provides athorough understanding of aresearch problem (Schmelzer,2008). It is alsosignificantinnursingpracticeasithelpsinthevalidation,comparisonand enhancement of patient care, which is in line with the UK government policy “Essence of care” that encourages the use of bench-marking by nurses in order to compare and improve practice (DH, 2010). Both the quantitative and qualitative research methodreviews literature, however donein different ways; while a quantitativeresearcherreviewsliteratureindetailbeforecommencingastudy (Halloway, 2008); a qualitative researcher briefly reviews literature at the beginning of a study (Wheelers and Holloway, 2010). However opposing this opinion, Silverman (2010) argues that a qualitative researcher should rather review similar literature after data analysis in order to reduce chances of getting biased results since the researchers thought can be influenced, this is termed “Experimental bias”. Researchliteratureconsistsofcomplexwords;hencebothaquantitativeanda qualitativeresearchmethodvalidatetheimportanceofoperationaldefinitionsin Nursing Research Process Components Essay order to promote understanding of the readers (Cherry, 2015). A quantitative researchisconductedin anexperimental/controlledenvironment which ensuresaccuracy of result(Anderson, 2006);contradicting this view,Jones (2015) is of the opinion that aquantitative research could be biased since it is not performed in a realistic environment. On the other hand, a qualitative research is also called a naturalistic science because it is conducted in the natural setting of the subjects.Thisequips theresearcherwiththeunderstandingoffactors thatcould influencetheresearchstudy,which could besocio-economicalsuchas;poor education and illiteracy. People from such background might not be able to cope with theresearchprocess,whichislinkedwiththewiderdeterminantsofhealthas explained by Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991). Research performed in a natural setting is very essential in nursing practice because it improves the understanding of nurses on the individual experiences of their patients and allows the nurse to reflect in and on action (Schon, 1983) to develop strategies to improve patient’s experience of care. This is in line with “improving the patient and client experience” (DH, 2013). Sampling method refers to technique used in selecting a sample size while a sample size refers to the group of people chosen to participate in a research. The major sampling techniques are; probability and non-probability sampling technique (McLeod, 2014); a quantitative research selects its sample size using the probability sampling technique so as to obtain results that can be generalized to the population. Typesofprobabilitytechniqueincludes;systematic,simplerandomandstratified samplingtechnique(Explorable, 2009).Aqualitativeresearchon theotherhand, uses non-probability sampling technique such as snowballing, quota, convenience/purposivesamplingtechniques.However,Barbie(2013)arguesthat some non-probability sampling methods can also be used by a quantitative research. Thesamplesizeofaquantitativeresearchislargerangingfrom100-1000and above (Hopkins, 2008) while that of a qualitative research is relatively small ranging from 20-30 (Polit et., 2001). However, Mason (2010) argues that a researcher could select as many sample size as possible until he gets to a saturation point since some qualitativeresultscanbegeneralized.Fromadifferentopinion,Jackson(2012)Nursing Research Process Components Essay suggests that a minimum sample size of 10 is accurate since a qualitative research only sets a hypothesis and cannot be generalised. A quantitative research is a systematic, structured and rigid type of research that uses Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for data collection. Contrarily, although a qualitative research is systematic, it is flexible and uses an unstructured instrument for data collection. Therefore, during interviews questions can be diverted depending on the responseof the participants (Belmontet al., 2010). Aquantitative research uses correlative and experimental approach (Shields and Alison, 2005) which is an integral aspect of nursingpractice because it enables the nurse tounderstand the relationship between an independent (cause) and a dependent (effect) variable. For instance an experiment can be conducted to identify the relationship between lung cancer (dependent variable) andsmoking (independent variable). This agrees with the opinion of Webb (2010) which emphasizes on the relevance of evidence-based practiceinthenursingprofession.Incontrary,aqualitativeresearchmethodis centred on the use of ethnographical, phenomenological approach and case study, which is also relevant in nursing practice as it allows nurses to be familiar with the individual experiences and needs of their patients (Kozma and Anderson, 2002). Ethical consideration is of paramount importance in both quantitative and qualitative researchmethod.Itisthereforenecessarytoobtainaninformedconsentfrom research participants putting into consideration the four ethical principles which are; autonomy,non-Nursing Research Process Components Essaymaleficence,beneficenceandjustice(BeauchampandChildress, 2009). Thisaims attreating participants withfairness andinvolving themin every decision making process during the research; as supported by “Liberating the NHS: No decision about me, without me” (DH, 2012). In both methods, participants are allowedtomaketheirownchoiceandeverydatacollectedduringtheresearch processisguardedwithstrictconfidentiality.ThisissupportedbytheHelsinki declaration (NIH, 2012), Data Protection Act (DH, 1988) and the data protection tips whichstatesthataresearch datashouldbekept“inalockedsafedrawer,in a locked room, in a locked building” and all electronic devices used for a research work should be built to a protected design (Penn state, 2014). Methods of data collection in aquantitative researchinclude; survey,structured interview andnon-participant observation whilea qualitativeresearch uses participantobservation, unstructured interview and focus group discussion (Bamberger, 2000). Although interview is used by both methods, a quantitative research uses a definite or close ended question which requires a “yes/no” answer; whereas a qualitative research on the other hand, uses an open ended questionwhich allows participants to discuss their feelings in details (Lodioet., 2010). However,Raja etal. (2003) suggeststhat theuse of an open endedquestionnaire is mosteffective as itprovides the researcherwith rich data. Opposing this statement, Gatton and Jones (2004) is of the opinion that a close ended questionnaire isthe best as ithelps to control therespondents, saves time and requires fewer skills. Rawdataina quantitativeresearchisrepresentedinanon-textual ornumerical form; these data are analyzed statistically and presented using graph, plot boxes, charts,figuresandtables.Onthecontrary,rawdatainqualitativeresearchare representedin text;they areanalyzedby beinggrouped intocategories (coding). Analyzed data’s are presented in themes and subthemes descriptively (Belmont et., 2010).Contradictingthisopinion, UniteforSight(2010)stated thataqualitative research can also be quantified to some extent such as, categorizing the percentage ofparticipantsinaresearch.Boththequantitativeandqualitativemethodsuses coding but it is important to note that while quantitative uses scores and numbers to code, qualitative uses themes and sub themes (Monett et al., 2014). According to Brown (2006) generalizability is the degree to which a research result can be extendedtothegeneralpopulation.Findingsofaquantitativeresearchcanbe generalized because of its objectivity and the use of a large sample size that can be representative of the general population, which explains validity (reality or factuality) and reliability (consistency) of the result (Thomas, 2005); however the use of a small samplesize couldaffectthegeneralizability ofaquantitative research(Katsirikou and Skiadas, 2011). In contrast, findings of a qualitative research gives insight to a problem and does not talk about truth hence, it cannot be generalized because of its subjectivity and the use of a relatively small sample size which is not representative of the general population (Barbie, 2013). However, William (2008) is of the opinion thatthefindingsofaqualitativeresearchcouldbegeneralizedifitpossesfour characteristics; credibility, transferability, confirmability and dependability, alongside with a large sample size. Disseminationoffindingsisalwaystheconclusionofaresearchprocess,both research methods disseminates findings through technology such as internet, books,Nursing Research Process Components Essay journals and social media; to improve practice and indicate areas for recommendation and constructive criticism (RCN, 2015). According to Wheelers and Holloway (2010) nurses should combine both methods in practice (Triangulation) as it leads to effectiveness of care. While qualitative research method provides nurses withan in-depthknowledge oftheirpatient’s experiences,behaviourand attitude, quantitative research on the other hand, allows thenurse to quantify these experiences. For instance, a qualitative research allows the nurse to identify patients selfcareneeds,whereasaquantitativeresearchrevealsthecauses,effectand extentof selfcaredeficit.Thiscan belinkedwiththe DorothyOrem’sselfcare theory (Orem’s, 1959). In conclusion, although the quantitative and qualitative research method have their weaknesses, they also posses their strengths; therefore none is superior to the other and shouldboth be usedin nursing practiceto enhance effectiveness(Burke and Larry, 2012). A qualitative research develops a theory for a quantitative research to experiment on; while a qualitative research validates these theories hence they work concurrently to improve practice (Barrett, 2012). Nursing research should be globalized in order to ensure professional growth and improve health care delivery worldwide (DH, 2008). Reflectively, writing this essay has broadened the knowledge of the author on the importance of qualitative and quantitative research methods and how they can be incorporatedinto nursing practice to improve professional growth (Rolfe, 2001 Nursing Research Process Components Essay Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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