PSYC 350 Binghamton Explain a Study Suggesting Sleeps Role in Consolidation Questions

PSYC 350 Binghamton Explain a Study Suggesting Sleeps Role in Consolidation Questions PSYC 350 Binghamton Explain a Study Suggesting Sleeps Role in Consolidation Questions ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview “Please do not delete any of the quotation marks that you find around the questions and directions, as annoying as they may be. They are there to help us to avoid false positives when they are run though the plagiarism checkers.” “Exam 1 Psych 350” • “You may refer to your notes, your textbook, and any material (recorded lectures, YouTube videos) that have been assigned or linked within the blackboard/myCourses site for our class.” • “You may not collaborate with any other person either in person, online, or via a text message thread. You may not ask for “help” or provide “help” on this exam while it is taking place. You may not use the wider internet (google, etc.) to assist you with your answers.” • “Because of SSD accommodations, students will have different ending times for the exam. You may not post questions about the exam or discuss the content of the exam on any publicly available websites or chats (or similar) until everyone has finished the exam at approximately 7:30 pm EST. “ • “Dr. Westerman and your graduate TA, Travis Talcott, will be available throughout the exam in the normal zoom room for our course if you need help in interpreting a question (we may or may not be able to assist you depending on the question, but you should not seek assistant via a friend, classmate, etc. to help you understand or answer a question). “ • “By typing your name below, you acknowledge that you have read this, that you agree to the academic honest policy in this class as described on the syllabus as the course tour videos, and you understand that you will fail the course should you be found to be in violation of the policy.” Type your name here acknowledging that you have read this and you agree: Chen Ge Exam instructions: “There are 4 questions. Each answer will be worth 15 points. The class is 85 minutes, so this gives you about 20 minutes per question. Although some will take longer and others will be shorter, keep your eye on the clock and try to spend no more than 20 minutes per question. You must have your exam uploaded to the Turnitin link by 5:50 pm EST to receive full credit. You will be deducted one point per minute for every minute late. E.g., 15 minutes late will equal 15 point deduction. “ “Note: If you have accommodations from the SSD allowing time and a half, you must turn it in by 6:33 pm to avoid the late penalty. If your accommodations are double time, you must turn it in by 7:25 pm” Exam instructions: “Please read each question carefully and type your response below the question taking as much space as you need to answer (Please type in the space indicated, in black font).” “1.) Explain the difference between implicit (indirect) and explicit (direct) memory tasks. PSYC 350 Binghamton Explain a Study Suggesting Sleeps Role in Consolidation Questions. Give at least two examples of a direct/ explicit task and two examples of an indirect/ implicit task (4 examples in total), briefly describing the general procedures of each task. ” [put your answer to Q1 here] There are many forms of information that are stored in memory, however they can be broadly divided into two categories: implicit and explicit. Explicit memories include information that must be consciously remembered while implicit memories are remembered unconsciously. Explicit memories include semantic memories (specific facts and concepts) as well as episodic memories (what happened at specific events). An example of this type of memory is being able to recall dates on a history exam. This requires active semantic memory recall during the exam. Another example is remembering a graduation ceremony years down the line. This involves accessing episodic memory to accurately recall the sights, smells, sounds, and other senses involved in the memory. Implicit memories, on the other hand, do not require this same level of active recall. Accessing these memories occurs unconsciously and therefore is unintentional. The main category of implicit memories is procedural memory, which includes remembering how to perform specific tasks. One example is understanding how to tie your shoes. It was an action learned in childhood that is remembered each day, but that does not require conscious, active work to recall. Another example for many is driving. Often, people report not exactly remembering how they drove from work to their homes at the end of the day as the route has become routine enough to be part of implicit memory. “2.) Over the summer, the president made headlines by describing the results of a cognitive test that he took as follows: (The follow excerpt is from The Guardian, published on 7/23/2020.)” “The president of the United States, has insisted that a cognitive test he took recently was ‘difficult’, using the example of a question in which the patient hears five words and is asked to repeat them back. ‘Person, woman, man, camera, TV,’ Trump explained, saying that listing the words in order was worth ‘extra points’, and that he found the task easy. ‘They said nobody gets it in order, it’s actually not that easy. But for me it was easy. And that’s not an easy question’” “Based on what you have learned about memory and memory tests in this class: What type of test did he take? What memory system was likely responsible for performing the task? Would you consider this a difficult task? Why or why not? What aspects of the task and/or the stimuli might make it easy or difficult? How could the task or the stimuli be changed to make it more difficult” [place answer to Q2 here, using as much space as you need to answer the question] In this test format, participants are read a list of words which they must remember and then recall in order. PSYC 350 Binghamton Explain a Study Suggesting Sleeps Role in Consolidation Questions. This is an example of a cognitive assessment and is commonly used to measure cognitive decline. This exam is specifically administered when testing patients for early signs of Alzheimer’s as most people with normal cognitive function should be able to recall the relatively short list of words. However, once cognitive impairment begins, such as with neurodegenerative disease, remembering the list becomes more challenging. This test specifically examines the patient’s short term memory function. Typically, short term memory can store around 7 words or ideas. Therefore, this list of 5 words should comfortably fit within most people’s short term memory. This means that if the patient is not able to recall all 5 words, they likely have some level of cognitive impairment or decline. Because the test only measures memory, it’s results are not linked to IQ or other measures of cognitive function. Additionally, the test should not be considered difficult as most people with unimpaired cognitive function will be able to successfully complete the exam. In regards to the specific list of words selected in President Trump’s test, “person, woman, man, camera, TV,” a patient is more likely to remember these words than another more random series. This is because these words are related and a relationship can be drawn from one word to the next. This is an example of linking. When ideas or words in a list are logically linked together, they become easier to memorize. In order for the task to be made more challenging (and therefore to serve as a better measure of cognitive function), the words should be truly randomized with no logical linkage between them. 3: “The graph below summarizes the results of a study in which participants read (visual list) or heard (auditory list) a list of 7 words followed by a free recall test. The results show the proportion of words recalled depending on where (what order) on the list the word appeared. The results illustrate several typical findings in memory. What are these findings, and how have they been explained by researchers (in other words, explain why we think each of these effects occur)? (You can enlarge the figure if needed by dragging a corner).” [place answer to Q 3 here] In this experiment, a list of words was either read on paper or read out loud for the participant and then they were asked to recall the list. First, we clearly see the recency effect and the serial position effect. The recency effect states that people are more likely to remember the most recently presented item in a list. In both the visual list and the auditory list example, participants remembered the last word more likely than they did the second-tolast-word. PSYC 350 Binghamton Explain a Study Suggesting Sleeps Role in Consolidation Questions. The recency effect also states that the middle words in a list are least likely to be remembered, which we also see in this example. The serial position effect states that in addition to the final word being easily remembered, participants will also remember the first few words very well. This is in part due to priming as the participants are readying themselves to be exposed to a list which they will later need to remember. When considering the serial position effect, both proactive and retroactive interference play an important role. Proactive interference occurs when someone cannot remember new material because they are focusing on remembering older material. Therefore, because the participant is so focused on remembering the first few words in the list, they do not pay as much attention to remembering the middle words. At the other end, retroactive interference comes into play as participants try to remember the final few words. This also negatively impacts their ability to remember the middle words. So, combined, both forms of interference drive the proportion correct of the middle words down. We also see the effect of auditory input versus visual input. For the first few words, there is no significant difference between the two inputs. However, we see that in the second half, those exposed to the auditory list did better than those exposed to the visual list and that the recency effect had a much greater impact on remembering the very last word for the auditory group than the visual group. This supports research in the recency effect which states that auditory stimuli tends to create a stronger recency effect. PSYC 350 Binghamton Explain a Study Suggesting Sleeps Role in Consolidation Questions. This is partially due to the static nature of visual stimuli as compared to the dynamic nature of auditory stimuli. “4. Imagine that you receive an email from an older relative telling you that she is considering enrolling in a brain training program that will involve something called a “dual n back test.” It is fairly expensive, but she thinks it may be worth it because, according to this program, the dual n back test is ‘scientifically proven to improve her fluid IQ.’ She has several specific questions (which are below). She knows that you are taking this class, and is looking for information and your expert advice. Please respond to her, making sure that your response answers the following questions:” “What is fluid IQ? What is a dual n back test? What is the basis of the claims the company is making? Are the claims valid? Is there anything that you think would help her to improve her memory and general cognitive ability instead of, or in addition to, this training program?“ [Place your answer to Q 4 here] There are, broadly, two categories of IQ: crystallized and fluid. Crystallized intelligence includes learned knowledge and procedures and is measured by vocabulary tests, general knowledge, analogies, and mechanics. Fluid intelligence, on the other hand, is related more to processes and reasoning and does not depend on prior learning. This is tested by active tasks such as classification, number and letter puzzles, and building associations between objects. Research suggests that fluid intelligence may be trainable resulting in positive outcomes, especially for elder adults who are at risk of cognitive decline. One example of training designed to strengthen fluid intelligence is the dual n back test. This is an active performance test that focuses on working memory. In the test, the participant is given a series of dual stimuli, such as letters both read out loud and on screen, and they must identify when a given stimuli matches one from n-steps previously. For example, in a 2-n test, the participant would indicate when the current letter matches the one they were shown two steps ago. The company claims that performing this type of training will help develop and strengthen fluid intelligence. There is some research to suggest that these types of tasks can increase fluid intelligence, however broadly there are still a lot of concerns about the construct validity of this form of training. Based on the type of IQ testing performed, it does not always suggest improvements in fluid intelligence. The issue is that this type of training helps develop a specific skill set that is not generally applicable to other forms of cognitive function that are measured in an IQ test. There are a couple of different activities that can improve fluid IQ. Because the focus is largely on thinking abstractly and finding patterns, activities that also work on these skills can help. For example, logical puzzles, creative endeavors, and learning about new things can all help develop this form of intelligence. … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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