Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion

Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion HS315-1: Assess how best practices can be used in community health assessment. Abia Polytechnic University HS 315 Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion Instructions Case studies are written by researchers, project managers, and study assistants in an effort to show what the application of public health theory looks like in real life. They allow public health professionals to better understand how best practices in public health are used in ‘real world’ and practical situations. Case studies also provide insight on potential outcomes, both good and poor, as well as challenges faced when theory is applied to practice. For the Unit 2 Assignment, write a minimum 500-word expository essay. First, provide a brief overview of the ten essential public health services. Using the case study you chose for the Unit 2 Discussion, describe which of the ten essential services the case study fits into and how. Describe some of the challenges the case study authors faced when applying best practices. Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion Requirements The paper should be at least 500 words in length. Include a list of references in APA format, including a citation for the case study and any other references used. Go to Academic Tools for assistance with writing and APA. closing_the__know_do__gap_training_public_health_pofessionals_in_eating_disorders_prevention1.pdf creating_quality_improvement_culture_in_public_health_agencies1.pdf designing_a_community_engagement_framework_for_a_new_dengue_control_method1.pdf framing_the_consequences_of_childhood_obesity_to_increase_public_support_for_obesity_prevention_policy1.pdf harnessing_the_power_of_the_grassroots_to_conduct_public_health_research_in_sub_saharan_africa1.pdf hs315_unit2_assignment_grading_rubric.xlsx CLINICAL CASE REPORT Closing the ‘‘Know-Do’’ Gap: Training Public Health Professionals in Eating Disorders Prevention via Case-Method Teaching S. Bryn Austin, ScD1,2,3* Kendrin R. Sonneville, ScD, RD, LDN2,3 ABSTRACT Expansion of our societies’ capacity to prevent eating disorders will require strategic integration of the topic into the curricula of professional training programs. An ideal way to integrate new content into educational programs is through the case-method approach, a teaching method that is more effective than traditional teaching techniques. The Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders has begun developing cases designed to be used in classroom settings to engage students in topical, high-impact issues in public health approaches to eating disorders prevention and screening. Dissemination of these cases will The well-documented harm and global reach of eating disorders1 point to the imperative for prevention. But prevention efforts to date are not yet sufficient to address the problem on the scale needed to reach the many millions of young people at risk.2 Our societies’ capacity to prevent eating disorders and dangerous weight and shape control behaviors will depend on substantial expansion of the range of professional disciplines committed to taking on the challenge. Chief among the disciplines essential to this task will be public health, a field that has made prevention its raison d’e?tre. Within the field of eating disorders prevention, we Accepted 6 December 2012 Supported by Ellen Feldberg Gordon Fund for Eating Disorders Research and T71-MC-00009 and T71-MC00001 from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. *Correspondence to: S. Bryn Austin, Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: bryn.austin@childrens.harvard.edu 1 Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 2 Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 3 Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/eat.22111 C 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. V International Journal of Eating Disorders 46:5 533–537 2013 provide an opportunity for students in public health training programs to learn material in a meaningful context by actively applying skills as they are learning them, helping to bridge the ‘‘know-do’’ gap. The new curriculum is an important step toward realizing the goal that public health practitioners be fully equipped to address the challenge of eating disorders prevention. C 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. V Keywords: public health; eating disorders; prevention; case-method teaching (Int J Eat Disord 2013; 46:533–537) have known for years that we need to motivate greater engagement of public health professionals,3,4 but how to do that has not been as clear, and recognition of the importance of eating disorders within public health remains spotty.2 Even when issues prioritized by public health are closely linked with eating disorders and related problems, such as the case with obesity, public health professionals largely remain unaware of the importance of the interconnections.Abia Polytechnic University HS 315 Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion 5,6 Moving a field demands changes at the source, that is, in the curriculum used at training centers producing each new cohort of professionals. Specifically, creating, testing, and scaling up effective public health approaches to eating disorders prevention requires strategic integration of the topic into curricula of public health professional training programs. An ideal way to integrate new content into educational programs is through the case-method approach, a discussion- and problem-solvingbased teaching technique that introduces trainees to real-world scenarios through a case study. Each case is a carefully crafted story, sometimes 10–20 pages long, developed from extensive background research to be evidence-based, timely, topical, and dynamic. Background research is conducted through reviews via the academic literature and news media coverage, when applicable, in the mainstream press or industry press 533 AUSTIN AND SONNEVILLE (e.g., business news wires). In addition, background research for each case is carried out through journalistic-style key informant interviews with practitioners in the field who have been directly involved in the type of conditions or dilemma addressed in a case.7 Each case typically features a protagonist facing a critical dilemma that must be problem-solved by trainees through teamwork in the classroom setting. With permission of the individuals involved, cases can be nonfiction, reporting on actual events and individuals who, in the course of their professional or civic work, faced a dilemma or decision point important in their field. Alternatively, cases can be fictionalized composites of the experiences of multiple different individuals, teams, and communities. The fictionalized composite approach, which is also based on extensive background research, allows the educator to strategically shape the case such that it melds and integrates fictional but reality-based events, anecdotes, and characters to create a story that emphasizes key learning objectives. Case-method teaching is one technique within the more encompassing pedagogy variably termed scientific teaching, student-centered active learning, and problem-based learning.8–10 Evidence is accumulating to show that in a wide range of scientific disciplines, teamwork-based, problem-solving activities are more effective than traditional teaching techniques, such as lectures or Socratic discussion.8 For instance, studies have found that compared to traditional teaching techniques, casemethod teaching results in greater gains in skills and longer-term retention of knowledge,10–13 and students retrospectively report more positive experiences in learning new material in case-method courses and a stronger sense of mastery of skills when subsequently applying them in the field.12 Possible explanations for enhanced effectiveness may be that case activities have students actively apply skills as they are learning them, material is learned in a meaningful context (i.e., the story of the case), and students’ attention is directed to applying and elaborating—as opposed to memorizing—the material to solve the identified problem.8,11,14 A longtime staple of instruction in higher education for business, law, and public policy, casemethod teaching is beginning to be adopted in public health professional training. For instance, the University of Washington, Seattle, School of Public Health has integrated the approach throughout the school’s curriculum so extensively that by the time master’s degree students complete their 534 training at the school, they are estimated to have worked through more than 50 teaching cases across their courses, covering more than 250 learning objectives. At Harvard University, the Global Health Delivery Project disseminates nationally and internationally 25 teaching cases it has developed focused on strategies to improve health care around the world. Seeking to capitalize on this new interest in case-method teaching in public health graduate education, the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders (STRIPED; www.hsph.harvard.edu/striped), Abia Polytechnic University HS 315 Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion based at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and Boston Children’s Hospital began a new program to develop a case-based curriculum. Cases are designed to be used in classroom settings to engage students in real-world dilemmas, problem solving, and teamwork while tackling topical, high-impact issues in public health approaches to eating disorders prevention and screening. They are being developed for use in courses at HSPH and also for public dissemination so they can be taught at other public health schools or any classroom covering public health related-topics. The case stories integrate eating disorders themes with other related issues that are widely recognized within the mainstream of public health as top priorities, such as childhood obesity and body mass index (BMI) screening in schools. Furthermore, learning objectives specific to the field of eating disorders are linked with core competencies in public health education, specifically those promulgated in 2006 by the United States Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) for all public health training programs. A complete case package for dissemination consists of a set of materials teachers will need to implement a case in their own classroom. These materials include: main case story narrative; supporting materials to distribute to students along with the case story (such as data tables, news articles, and correspondence occurring among characters in the case); homework assignment; inclass activity assignment; teaching note to guide teachers on key learning objectives and discussion points and recommendations for background supporting articles about the main themes of the case; and a companion technical document that is publicly available, ideally at no cost, and provides instruction for public health practitioners on the specific technical skills to be learned and applied through the homework and in-class activity. International Journal of Eating Disorders 46:5 533–537 2013 CLOSING ‘‘KNOW-DO’’ GAP VIA CASE-METHOD TEACHING Exemplar Teaching Cases From STRIPED Curriculum Case #1: Who’s Calling Me Fat? Or How Columbia Got Its Obesity Prevention Campaign Back on Track Synopsis. The case presents the fictionalized story of lead character Gisele Rodriquez of the fictional U.S. state of Columbia’s Department of Public Health (CDPH). At the start of the case, the department has made its first attempt at producing a childhood obesity prevention social marketing campaign, but the campaign suffers a few major missteps right out of the gate and is received with ridicule in the national press and energetic protest from the local community for messaging thought to perpetuate weight stigma and bias. CDPH staff are taken aback by the criticism and by the questions lodged about the ethics of their original approach, but they are not daunted. They decide to right course by issuing a request for proposals to solicit applications from outside the agency to design a new campaign that is more evidencebased than the first one and more savvy to issues raised by the community. That is where the case leaves off and the students are tasked, through the homework assignment and in-class team problemsolving activity, to design a campaign that is evidence-based, sensitive to multiple concerns, and ethical. Companion Technical Document. Making Health Communication Programs Work: A Planner’s Guide.15 Real-World Basis. Considered a priority issue nationally in the United States and internationally, childhood obesity has received enormous attention from public health practitioners seeking to slow and reverse the epidemic through interventions targeting homes, schools, neighborhoods, restaurants, grocery stores, and many other settings.16 Mass media represents another setting commonly used for public health interventions through methods such as social marketing. Unfortunately too many of these campaigns when focused on obesity have been perceived as reinforcing weight stigma and bias. Puhl et al. recently examined 76 obesityrelated social marketing campaigns in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, eliciting audience reaction from a representative sample of U.S. adults.17 They found many of the campaigns included messages that were stigmatizing to overweight children and adults, and audiences reported feeling least motivated to adopt healthful behaviors in response to these campaigns International Journal of Eating Disorders 46:5 533–537 2013 compared to others not perceived as stigmatizing. The findings suggest a disconnect between public health campaign designers and audiences regarding the ethics and efficacy of using stigmatizing messages.Abia Polytechnic University HS 315 Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion ‘‘Who’s Calling Me Fat’’ is a fictionalized composite of real social marketing campaigns that have been implemented in a number of localities across the United States like the ones examined by Puhl et al.17 The story and its elements are based on our background research and interviews with public health professionals who have worked on obesity prevention social marketing campaigns. The primary target audience is graduate students in courses on public health nutrition, obesity prevention, or health communications, because these types of future public health professionals are likely to be involved in designing obesity prevention social marketing campaigns. Learning Objectives. The primary eating disordersrelated learning objectives of the case are to: (1) Identify the range of harmful effects of weight stigma and bias; (2) Describe the evidence documenting the association between weight-related teasing and harassment and subsequent increased risk of developing eating disorder symptoms in youth; (3) Describe evidence supporting the protective effects of body satisfaction on healthful nutritional and physical activity behaviors in youth; (4) Demonstrate skills in evidence-based health communications by designing a social marketing campaign on childhood obesity that promotes healthful behaviors without stigmatizing messages. Several ASPH core competencies for master’s degree students that the case addresses are to: (1) Describe steps and procedures for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health interventions, (2) Apply evidence-based approaches in the development and evaluation of social and behavioral science interventions, (3) Apply theory and strategy-based communication principles across different settings and audiences, and (4) Apply basic principles of ethical analysis to issues of public health practice and policy. Case #2: Dollars or Sense? In Search of the Elusive Economics of School Health Screening Programs Synopsis. Continuing the thread from Case #1, this second case presents the fictionalized story of protagonist Nefertiti Nelson, lead analyst in CDPH’s Office of Management and Budget. CDPH is considering a proposal to implement a new BMI screening program or a BMI plus eating disorders screening program in high schools across the state. 535 AUSTIN AND SONNEVILLE The BMI screening idea is quite popular among the state’s politicians and political appointees, but when it comes down to the dollars and cents, it is not clear whether the program is going to be best use of the state’s and schools’ limited resources or whether adding eating disorders screening will have a measurable impact on the bottom line. To help inform its decision, CDPH contacts a private, for-profit consulting firm that often works on a contract basis to do cost-effectiveness analyses for government agencies to evaluate various programs. The case leaves off at the point where Nelson has met with the consulting firm and set them on course to produce an options report, that is, a set of cost-effectiveness results based on the estimated costs of implementing screening in the schools under the different hypothetical scenarios and the potential savings of early detection and treatment of the health conditions. Through the homework assignment and in-class team problem-solving activity, students play the role of consultants, working together to advise the state on which course of action is the best use of scarce resources. Companion Technical Document. Guide to Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Community Public Health Prevention Approaches.18 Real-World Basis. Economic analysis methods are increasingly being used to understand the impact of medical, psychiatric, and public health programs addressing a wide range of health issues, including eating disorders prevention19 and interventions to address childhood obesity.20 One intervention that has enjoyed widespread acceptance among policy makers is BMI screening in schools,21 yet this type of screening program has yet to be examined for cost-effectiveness. Currently, 14 U.S. states have BMI screening-related policies, with nine mandating height and weight or BMI surveillance and an additional five requiring reporting of BMI screening to parents.22 These programs have generated a good deal of controversy among parents and eating disorders professionals and advocates concerned about unintended negative consequences that the heightened scrutiny on weight might cause for vulnerable students.21 Given the widespread adoption, concern about value and safety, and lack of data on economic impact, BMI screening programs are an ideal target for new cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) to inform public health decision-making on resource allocation.Abia Polytechnic University HS 315 Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion v In an ironic twist, school-based BMI screening programs may create an opportunity for eating disorders screening to be adopted in school systems. Currently, the National Eating Disorders Association, a U.S. nonprofit community organization, is 536 leading a multistate advocacy initiative to urge state legislatures to implement eating disorders screening in school and other settings. In states where BMI screening is already mandated, the avenue that is most legislatively pragmatic and potentially least resource burdensome to schools may be to add eating disorders screening as a simple amendment to BMI screening mandates. What are the estimated costs of implementing eating disorders screening in schools and potential savings of these programs through early detection and treatment? This is an excellent example of the type of topical, high-impact question for the field of eating disorders that our STRIPED case is designed to have public health trainees help to answer. Learning Objectives. The primary eating disordersrelated learning objectives of this case include: (1) Describe the extant research applying CEA methods to eating disorders treatment, prevention, and screening interventions; (2) Identify the types of political, social, and organizational conditions that can lead to public health programs, like BMI screening, to be rolled out despite concerns about value and safety and the absence of CEA evidence; (3) Demonstrate CEA skills by estimating potential benefits of eating disorder screening under varied, plausible implementation conditions. Some of the ASPH core competencies for master’s degree students that the case focuses on are to: (1) Apply evidence-based approaches in the development and evaluation of social and behavioral science interventions; (2) Apply the principles of budgeting, management, and evaluation in organizational and community initiatives; (3) Assess evaluation reports in relation to their quality, utility, and impact on public health. Conclusions The need to engage public health professionals in eating disorders prevention is clear and immediate. Student-centered, problem-based learning techniques, such as the case-method approach, can be used to integrate the topic of eating disorders into the curricula of professional training programs, thereby stimulating engagement of public health professionals. STRIPED’s program to develop a case-based curriculum for dissemination uses state-of-the-art teaching modalities to integrate eating disorders themes with other issues recognized as top public health priorities. To enhance utility and acceptability of the cases and to maximize adoption in public health professional training settings, each case is tied to U.S. national International Journal of Eating Disorders 46:5 533–537 2013 CLOSING ‘‘KNOW-DO’’ GAP VIA CASE-METHOD TEACHING standards fo … Ten Essential Public Health Services Discussion Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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