[ORDER SOLUTION] Transatlantic Relations
The final paper assignment makes up 100% of the final grade.Please read carefully the instructions below and write two of the following four essaysoutlined below in Hebrew or in English (50 points each).This assignment requires the submission of two originally and individually authored essays of 1,200-1,500 words (each). Each essay should include a well-structured opening with a thesis statement referring to the question. You should explain, substantiate, and support the thesis statement throughout by elaborating the main and relevant concepts, positions, historical processes, events, and examples, including those discussed in class and in the course readings.In these essays, you are not required to cite references, but the essays must be the personal and original work of the submitting student. Notwithstanding, students are allowed to work in groups on the assignment before beginning to write them, but each student must write the assignment herself (or himself). Submitted assignments with very similar phrasing will be disqualified and could lead to disciplinary action. Furthermore, a completed assignment shared with other students and used for the purpose of copying will be disqualified. In addition, false reporting or presenting fabricated information regarding an assignment and/or for the purpose of obtaining a postponement or exemption is a violation of the disciplinary code. Violations will lead to disciplinary action.Please submit both essays in one WORD file (*.docx) via the Moodle system no later than09:00am on March 14. Do not upload any other type of file.There is only one submission date. There will be no extensions other than those approvedby the Students Secretariat. With regards to late submissions Assignment submitted up to one week after the original submission date will limit the maximum grade to 80 and the assignment will be graded on a scale of 0-80.Assignments submitted later than a week after the original due date will be considered as not submitted.If you have any questions, you may contact Tommy (firstname.lastname@example.org). Please allow sufficient time to revert to you. Substantive questions regarding the assignment will not be addressed in the final 24 hours before submission other than urgent technical matters.Do Well !!!Essay #1Had the United States and the EU devised and implemented a more effective strategy to promote peace, development and regional cooperation in the Middle East after the end of the Cold War, they could have prevented the turmoil and violence engulfing the Middle East since the onset of the so-called Arab Spring. Discuss and opinionate. In your essay, explain the main features (objectives, mechanisms, and outcomes) of Western engagement in the Middle East in the post-Cold War era (1990-2010). Why did the EU and the US invest so many resources in the Middle East? Why did these efforts fail? With the benefit of hindsight what could have the EU and US done to prevent the regional turmoil?Essay #2The three main theoretical schools/paradigms of IR thought Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism offer different readings of the Atlantic Alliance (or community) and of the challenges it faces. These readings reflect dissimilar explanations concerning the basic rationale and driving force of NATO and different expectations concerning its future. For instance, while Realists view NATO as an alliance, Liberals would focus their attention on NATO as an institution (some of them would also highlight the role of domestic politics). Constructivists, on their part, would pay attention to ideas and norms and view NATO as a community.This theoretical debate has “real world” implications: What do these different theoretical perspectives tell us about the future of the Alliance and the continuing relevance of NATO in face of a resurgent Russia? Did Russias intervention in Ukraine and ongoing actions against Ukraine re-unite the Alliance or have they exposed different views and interests? Discuss and opinionate and refer also to NATOs Enhanced Forward Presence mission. In your answer, explain the differences in the theoretical categorizations of NATO offered by the three schools of thought.Essay #3Contrary to former President Trumps repeated statements, Europes burden sharing has actually improved. Many European allies have increased their defense spending towards the 2% benchmark. The track record of NATOs European allies role in, and contribution to, the War in Afghanistan shows that European allies have played an increasing role. Actually, the ratio of European troops in Afghanistan has increased since the end of combat operations in Afghanistan and the transition to Resolute Support Mission. In NATOs current deployment to Eastern Europe and the Baltics Enhanced Forward Presence, European allies play a major role too. Opinionate and discuss. In your essay, assess Europes current burden sharing compared to previous periods such as the Cold War and post-Cold War periods and operations (Balkans 1990s; Afghanistan 2004-2010). Has Europes burden sharing improved? Is Europe doing enough for its own defense?Essay #4The United States and Europe have been simply out of sync well before former President Trump entered office and the change of guards in the White House will not make all the challenges disappear. Since the beginning of the 21st Century, the United States and Europe find it increasingly difficult to respond to regional and global challenges in a coordinated and timely manner be it Russias aggression in Ukraine and its alleged interference in Western electoral politics, the rise of China, or the turmoil in the Middle East. What are the reasons that have brought the Transatlantic allies to this point? What are the likely drivers of Transatlantic relations? Can Europe and the United States become once again in sync? What would it take? In your essay, use current examples to substantiate your assessment.