Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper

Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper Write 1 page abstract on the paper below picot_final__1_.docx How to Prevent Urinary Tract Infection in Older Women? Nayvi Brennan Florida National University Dr. Wanda Morancy 04/17/2020 How to prevent urinary tract infections in older women? Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper Urinary tract infection is termed as the foray of an organism causing infection or disease on any component of the urinary system in a human body. Elements of the urinary system include the kidney, bladder, urethra, among others. Urinary tract infection is mostly caused by bacteria found in the digestive system. It is known to cause discomfort in the urinary system among infected individuals. Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper. The infection can be self-diagnosed, but, on many occasions, it is identified through laboratory tests and imaging. (Yesim Alpay, 2018) The study will seek to investigate in detail the preventive measures necessary to avoid contraction of the infection among women. Causes of the infection will also be analyzed to help achieve the objective of the study. Treatment methods and procedures will also be necessary for the success of the study. Identification of the common signs and symptoms of the infection will be crucial when conducting the study. Some of the common signs and symptoms of the urinary tract infections include; pressing urge to urinate frequently, burning urinating sensation, cloudy urine, difficulty when urinating, among others. All these symptoms may seem as mere annoyance even though they are clear signs of urinary tract illnesses. The investigation on how to prevent the urinary tract infection in older women is of much importance to nursing practice. Many women are usually unaware of the existence of the urinary infection and the health problems associated with it. Most of these women seek treatment misinformed on the possible infection they might be facing. The women, therefore, are also unaware of the existence of preventive measures to the urinary tract infection treatment. There is a need to identify preventive measures to the problem which are easily accessible for both the nursing practitioners and the members of the society. PICOT Question: How to prevent Urinary Tract Infection among older women aged between forty and sixty-five years using cranberry juice in comparison to the use of an antibiotic drug (Cefaclor), employing a neck disability index to determine the expected results within six months. Population Several studies have been conducted in a bid to identify how to prevent urinary tract infections in older women. Controlled trials that are randomized among patients already identified to suffer from urinary tract illness are best suited for the study. Already existing patients suffering from the illness are crucial to preventive measures research as their health records are easily and readily available (Erin M Schwenger, 2015). The study will hence employ a sample size of one hundred and fifty patients whose medical records indicate clinical signs and symptoms of the illness. A review that involves a randomized control method is quite useful in observation and recording of results and outcomes from a study on preventing urinary tract infection (Erin M Schwenger, 2015). The sample size will consist of both male and female participants with the exemption of the elderly group of individuals. The elderly will not account for the total population used in the study as they may either respond slowly or not respond at all to the preventive measures employed in the study. Children will also be exempted from the population under investigation hence allowing us to use an average adult population. The population is expected to be between forty and sixty-five years of age. The patient population will be expected to give both qualitative and quantitative feedback on the procedures followed in the preventive measures and the outcome or result of the measures. Intervention. Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper The prevention or treatment employed will consist of non-drug measures. Primary care is identified as the most effective treatment and prevention measure among urinary tract system cases (Ahmed H, 2018). Primary care is also recognized as the most common among patients, although there is a need to seek further treatment in hospitals upon escalation of the illness. Primary care is typically administered by a health practitioner who, in most cases, is usually a nursing practitioner. The nursing practitioner often employs necessary treatment measures before organizing with other practitioners in situations that require specialized treatment. Among the most commonly known preventive measures, cranberry juice appears readily available for the patient population under study. Cranberry juice is identified as a health solution to many illnesses, among them urinary tract infections. Our research, therefore, will investigate the possible management of urinary tract illnesses with cranberry and cranberry concentrates. It will go ahead to observe the patient’s reaction to the use of the preventive measure and give a particular outcome. Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper Comparison Antibiotic management of urinary tract infections is also considered an effective preventive measure against the illness (Gharh, 2019). Antibiotics will also be investigated in the study with a particular focus on the outcomes of treating urinary tract related illnesses. There is also a need to investigate the possible side effects of prolonged use of the medical drug. Cefaclor will be used in our study as the control group, where comparison will be made to the use of either cefaclor antibiotic or cranberry to prevent the occurrence of the urinary tract illnesses. The recurrence of the urinary tract infection will assist the study in determining the effectiveness of preventive and treatment measures. The control group in the study will be useful in determining the effectivity of cranberry as compared to antibiotic drugs, which is cefaclor in our research. Outcome/Expected Result The study intends to use a neck disability index to determine the outcome of the preventive measures to prevent urinary tract infection in older women. The neck disability index will involve the patient population under study self-reporting on their progress in preventing the occurrence of the illness. The patients will fill in a daily form of a questionnaire where they will indicate the preventive or treatment measures that they are employing. Signs and symptoms of the illnesses is a vital record from the patients involved in a study (Yesim Alpay, 2018). They will also need to indicate how often in a day they are employing the preventive measure. Most importantly, they will need to indicate their daily health wellness in regards to a urinary tract illness. Through this, the study will have the ability to monitoring the health progress of the patient while identifying the effectiveness of the cranberry juice in preventing urinary tract illnesses. The neck disability index will, after that, be useful in analyzing the results of the study hence concluding the investigation. Time/ Duration of Data Collection The study will be conducted within a time duration of six months, where expected results will give a clear view of the study. During this time, the patients will be expected to provide the study with comprehensive results on how to prevent urinary tract infection in older women. Keywords to be used in the study are; Antibiotic, Diagnosis, Neck Disability Index, Cefaclor, Primary Care, Cranberry, Randomised Controlled Trials, Nursing practitioner, Effective Treatment, Preventive Measures. Literature Review Various studies have conducted in-depth investigations on measures that can be taken to prevent the occurrence of urinary tract infection. These studies have focused on both clinical and non-clinical measures that can be taken into consideration. Individuals and patients with cases of recurring urinary tract infection have been of great help to these investigations as they are a good population of the study. The existing knowledge will provide a clear view of knowledge relevant to the study. DeAnn J Liska (2016) notes that cranberries have been used for many decades for both nutritional and health benefits. Among the health benefits associated with cranberries is the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections. The article by Liska further highlights that cranberries provide a conventional prevention and treatment agent for any illness associated with the urinary tract system. Among the persons who have been benefited by cranberry juice are individuals of the female gender who, on many occasions, suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections. The article observes that cranberry use as a prevention measure against urinary tract infection is more of a biological concept rather than a traditional belief as presented by many. The cranberry juice possesses a substance that works to prevent bacteria from sticking to the walls of any of the urinary system components. Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper Furthermore, different populations are noted to have divergent reactions to the application of the juice as a preventive measure against UTIs. The article further notes that antibiotics are, on many occasions, prescribed to those suffering from recurrent episodes of the UTI. In these cases, antibiotics are prescribed as both a treatment and a preventive agent. The use of the antibiotics repetitively may cause the body to adapt to the antibiotic, thus creating or resulting in the body resisting the clinical drugs. Lifestyle through diet observation has been identified as a crucial way of assisting women in fighting off the resisting force of the body against the prevention and treatment of the UTIs. The use of nonantibiotic measures to fight UTI is, therefore, considered a healthy option for women. Investigations and research on the role of cranberries have showcased positive results in the reduction in recurrent UTIs among healthy individuals (Liska, 2016). Nicolle (2016) has highlighted the need for daily intake of the cranberry juice in a bid to fight off UTI. Cranberry juice is widely known to lower the pH levels of urine in a human body. The article, however, highlights the need for intake of the cranberry juice in large volumes to counter the high pH levels in the human urine. Many studies have opposed the efficiency and effectiveness of the cranberry juice in preventing or treating urinary tract infections. However, prolonged use of the cranberry juice may decrease the occurrence of the urinary tract infection among women. The comparison between the use of antibiotics and the use of cranberry does not present distinctive results. A question, therefore, arises on the effectiveness of the juice in resolving problems associated with urinary tract infections. Investigations and studies on us of cranberries to prevent and treat UTIs, as presented by the article, have shown inconsistent and probably unreliable results (Nicolle, 2016). Erin M Schwenger (2015) notes the numerous health effects brought about by the common bacterial infection. Among the health effects associated with UTIs, as highlighted by Schwenger, is kidney disfunction. The kidney is a major component of the urinary system; thus, its disfunction may bring about adverse health complications. The article notes on the high risk of women contracting UTIs as compared to men who possess a lower risk of contraction. The report acknowledges the use of drug and non-drug measures in combating the illness either by prevention or treatment. The antibiotics have shown inconsistent results among recurring patients (Schwenger, 2015). Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper Research Method, Aim of the Study, Sample, Outcomes, Measurement, And Results A literature search on data concerning the prevention of urinary tract infection is essential in giving reliable results. Systematic reviews will be useful in providing conclusions on the study. A review of the existing data from the relevant literature creates an avenue for the researcher to present overall results based on independent review analysis. Reports obtained from the selected reviews will also be put under in-depth scrutiny (Liska, 2016). The reports will assist in obtaining results on the efficiency of the cranberry in preventing or treating urinary tract infections. The study will also use randomized control trials to complement the literature reviews. The study will also compare the results drawn from various literature and independent findings from the controlled trails. The literature search will also put into consideration the critical areas of research conducted about urinary tract infections (Ahmed H, 2017). The study will focus on determining the impact of using cranberries to prevent urinary tract infections in older women as compared to the use of antibiotics within six months. The use of reviews will assist in analyzing feedback given on the use of cranberries to prevent or treat UTIs in older women. The studies under investigation must consist of results obtained within at least six months. The assessments on the use of cranberries to treat or prevent UTIs will be independent for the study to achieve its principal aim (Ahmed H, 2017). The study used a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of one hundred and fifty women. The controlled sample size was observed for six months. The results were collected using the neck disability index, where the women were expected to fill in a form on any events about the study. At the end of the six months, the results were collected and analyzed. Data from the literature survey was also obtained from reliable databases and compared to the results obtained from the study. All the results obtained were analyzed and used to draw a comprehensive conclusion. The results from the randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 150 were measured through a comparison of the vagina oestrogens when using cranberry juice and when using antibiotics (Cefaclor). Long term use of cranberry juice reduced urinary tract infection from reoccurring by 30%. The result was obtained from three trials; n=75, a risk ratio of 0.76 &CI of 0.61, and 0.95 at 95%CI. The cranberry juice was a statistically significant determinant in preventing the reoccurrence of UTIs. The control variable, cefaclor, was also considered an essential factor in the prevention of UTI reoccurrence. With n=75, the risk ratio was at 0.31, while at 95%CI, 0.37 up to 2.56. However, from the neck disability index, some of the respondents showcased resistance to the antibiotic, cefaclor (Ahmed H, 2017). Related literature showcased the recognition of antibiotics to prevent and treat UTIs. Data from the literature and reliable databases showcase readmission of patients previously under treatment using antibiotics, including cefaclor. Up to five works of literature were relevant to the study showcasing the resistance of the human body against antibiotics. However, prolonged use of the cranberry juice was considered an essential determinant in reducing the likelihood of reoccurrence by up to 20% (Gharbi, 2019). However, from the controlled random sample, drinking more than eight glasses of cranberry juice in a day for the entire period failed to reduce the chances of reoccurrence. Most of the related literature also showed inconsistent results among different women. The study, therefore, concludes the importance of cranberry juice in preventing UTIs. However, the outcome of the cranberry juice efficiency in preventing or treating UTIs is inconsistent among different women (Ahmed, 2018). Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper Summary The study conducted by DeAnn J Liska (2016) indicated that cranberries were effective in preventing UTIs among women. The study also established that the cranberries prevented any disease that is associated with UTIs. However, research also indicated that different people react differently to cranberry juice. Therefore, the treatment may not perform as always expected. Nevertheless, such a group of people may get antibiotic prescriptions for their UTIs infections (DeAnn J Liska, 2016). However, there is a concern about the continuous use of antibiotics since the body may get used to the drugs and develop resistance. Thus, antibiotics will no longer be effective in treating UTIs on such persons. Therefore, DeAnn J Liska (2016) proposed the cranberry juice as a natural method of the treatment of UTIs. Similarly, the study by Nicolle (2016) indicated that a daily intake of cranberry juice could lower the chances of contracting UTIs. The cranberry juice lowers the pH of the urine, thus decreases the occurrence of infections since it discourages the growth of bacteria. However, the study indicated no significant results between the use of cranberry juice and antibiotics in preventing UTIs. The study by Erin M Schwenger (2015) also stated the inconsistency of using antibiotics in the treatment of UTIs. These studies indicate that there has been some research done on the use of both cranberry juice and antibiotics in treating UTI. However, the research on the issue is not sufficient, resulting in divergent opinions regarding the use of both methods. The gaps present in the studies indicate that the population under study is not sufficiently represented. This can result in giving unreliable results. Clinical Recommendations Through the evidence gathered from previous research, physicians should recommend cranberry juice to patients suffering from UTIs. The older women should get a daily prescription of the cranberry juice to lower their chances of contracting UTIs since the study indicated that the likelihood of reoccurrence is reduced by twenty percent when cranberry juice is used (Nicolle, 2016). The cranberry juice will make the urine more acidic, discouraging the growth of the commonly UTI causing bacteria, E. coli. However, medical practitioners should also prescribe antibiotic medication for those infected with UTI. This should act as a treatment method, while cranberry juice is a preventive option. Nevertheless, it is recommended that older women be taught on good habits that may supplement the use of cranberries (DeAnn J Liska, 2016). For example, one should have good hygiene practices, especially after using the toilet. Proper cleaning ensures that the growth of E. coli is discouraged. For the practice to become evidence-based, first, the question of how to prevent UTIs among older women has to be asked. This question will act as guidance for the clinicians since they will search for different methods of addressing the issue (Dang & Dearholt, 2017). The second step involves searching for the most effective method. In this case, two methods were proposed; using cranberries or antibiotics. The two approaches are then be evaluated and the most effective one chosen. This is based on which presents the highest positive results. Since the use of cranberries was proposed, it is then integrated into clinical practice under the supervision of the clinicians and in collaboration with the patients (Dang & Dearholt, 2017). The outcome of using cranberry juice should then be evaluated to investigate effectiveness since its introduction. Positive feedback from both the patients and medical practitioners will change the use of cranberry juice as an evidence-based practice. Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper References Ahmed H, D. F. (2017). Long-term antibiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. BMJ. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015233 Ahmed H, e. a. (2018). Incidence and antibiotic prescribing for clinically diagnosed urinary tract infection in older women in UK primary care, 2004-2014. Plos One. Dang, D., & Dearholt, S. L. (2017). Johns Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice: Model and guidelines. Sigma Theta Tau. DeAnn J Liska, H. J. (2016). Cranberries and Urinary Tract Infections: How Can the Same Evidence Lead to Conflicting Advice? PubMed Central, 498–506. Retrieved from https:// doi: 10.3945/an.115.011197 Erin M Schwenger, A. M. (2015). Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Systematic Review. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008772.pub2 Gharb, M. (2019). Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study. The British Medical Journal. Haroon Ahmed, e. a. (2018). Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: Retrospective cohort study using linked health record data. Plos Medicine. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002652 Myriam Gharbi, e. a. (2019). Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all-cause mortality: a population-based cohort study. BMJ. Retrieved from https://doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l525 Nicolle, L. E. (2016). Cranberry for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection? Journal of the American Medical Association. Retrieved from https://doi:10.1001/jama.2016.16140 Yesim Alpay, e. a. (2018). Urinary tract infections in the geriatric patients. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 67–72. Literature Search Ahmed H, e. a. (2018). Incidence and antibiotic prescribing for clinically diagnosed urinary tract infection in older women in UK primary care, 2004-2014. Plos One. Chisholm, A. H. (2015). Probiotics in Preventing Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections In Women: A Literature Review. Urologic Nursing, 35(1), 18. doi: 10.7257/1053- 816x.2015.35.1.18 Urinary Tract Infection Among Older Women Abstract Paper Erin M Schwenger, A. M. (2015). Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in women and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Fatima, S. S., & Mussaed, E. A. (2017). Antibiotic Resistance in UTI Bacteria. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology Bacterial Identification and Drug Susceptibility Patterns in Pregnant and Non Pregnant UTI Patients, 47–60. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-4750-3_3 Gharb, M. (2019). Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study. The British Medical Journal. Kontiokari Tero, Sundqvist Kaj, Nuutinen M, PokkaT, Koskela M, Uhari M et al. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women BMJ 2001; 322 :1571 Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. (2013). Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, 51(6), 69–74. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2013.6.0187 Salvatore, S., Salvatore, S., Cattoni, E., Siesto, G., Serati, M., Sorice, P., & Torella, M. (2011). Urinary tract infections in women. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 156(2), 131–136. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.01.028 Yesim Alpay, e. a. (2018). Urinary tract infections in the geriatric patients. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 67–72. Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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