Use of Soap and Water

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Use of Soap and Water

Use of Soap and Water

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discussion 2

Use of Soap and Water Versus Alcohol-Based Rubs to Prevent Nosocomial Infections

The study chosen for this topic researched the effects of waterless hand rubs versus the traditional hand scrubbing method to prevent infections in surgical rooms.  One hundred operating room staff members from different medical centers were divided into two groups of fifty participants (Chen, Han, Kan, Chen & Hung, 2012).  One group used waterless hand rubs and the other group of workers used traditional hand washing techniques as part of the scrubbing process for surgeries.  The hands of the participants were scrubbed and a bacterial culture was done on the two groups of participants (Chen et al., 2012).  After a forty-eight hour period of bacterial growth of both samples, the results demonstrated bacteria growth was equal among the two groups (Chen et al., 2012).  There were no statistical significance found.  The study concluded that alcohol-based rubs and water provide the same level of protection among operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012).

Strengths and Weaknesses

One of the strengths of the study was the method of conducting the study was the same among the two participant groups (Chen et al., 2012).  The time the participants took in applying the alcohol-based rub and washing hands were the same.  The weakness of the study was the participant sample was rather small (Chen et al., 2012).  A larger study conducted at different facilities provides better evidence of the findings.  Also, a study with a larger sample population may have also resulted in different findings (Chen et al., 2012).

Rationale for the Design

The study selected is a quantitative research that attempted to estimate the required scrubbing times using alcohol-based scrubs and traditional handwashing technique for operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012).  Also the study focused on comparing the use of alcohol-based hand rubs versus the traditional handwashing techniques in prevention of nosocomial infections in the operating room (Chen et al., 2012).

Relationship Between Alcohol and Breast Cancer

The article reviewed focused on possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue and possible consequences.  The study also reviewed the women’s age in relations to drinking habits, in an attempt to identify a possible connection between early alcohol consumption among women and breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).

Strengths and Weaknesses

A strength of the study is there was significant evidence to suggest that the risk of cancer increases by thirty-four percent for those women who had an alcohol intake greater than fifteen drinks per day (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  A weakness identified in the study was that other lifestyle components that may increase the risk of breast cancer were not taken into consideration when conducting the study (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).

Rationale for the Design

This research was focused on the possible influence of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the possible mechanisms underlying alcohol and breast cancer association.  The possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue were studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  The women’s age in relation to drinking habits for possible connection between early alcohol consumption in women and breast cancer were also studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).

Difference in Attitudes Between Male and Female Students Towards Condoms

Female and male participants from a treatment-seeking substance abuse treatment program were studied in relations to their attitudes and skills towards the use of condoms.  The study found that men found more barriers to using condoms than women (Calsyn, Peavy, Wells, Campbell, Hatch-Maillette, Greenfield & Tross, 2013).  The study used electronic interviews for assessment of skills and attitude towards the use of condom (Calsyn et al., 2013).

Strengths and Weaknesses

A strength of the study was the participants researched were at high risk for unprotected sex practice (Calsyn et al., 2013).  A limitation found in the study was that the information was taken from two different studies that were not designed to compare men and women (Calsyn et al., 2013).  Another limitation of the study was the participants studied were a selected population from a drug abuse treatment program, which may or may have not influenced the findings (Calsyn et al., 2013).

Rationale for the Design

The reason for the study was to examine the differences between males and females in relationship to condom use; the attitude towards the practice of wearing condom and the skills among both groups (Calsyn et al., 2013).

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